Nutrition Chapt. 21

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Nutrition Chapt. 21
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2010-11-02 20:12:32
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Nutrition Chapt. 21
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  1. microscopic anatomic and function unit of the kidney; selectively filters and reabsorbs essential blood factors, secretes hydrogen ions as needed to maintain acid-base balance, reabsorbs water to protect body fluids and forms and excretes a concentrated urine for elimination of wastes. Each kidney contains approx. 1 million.
    Nephrons
  2. Volume of fluid filtered from the renal glomerular capillaries into Bowman's capsule per unit of time; used clinically as a measure of kidney function:
    glomerular filtration rate (GFR)
  3. A potent hormone of the outside layer of the adrenal glands that acts on the distal nephron tubule to stimulate reabsorption of sodium in an ion exchange with potassium. The hormones mechanism is essentially a sodum conserving mechanism but also indirectly conserves water because water absorption follos sodium resorption:
    Aldosterone
  4. a hormone of the pituitary gland that acts on the distal nephron tubule to conserve water by reabsorption; also called vasopressin:
    antidiuertic
  5. The first section of the nephron, a cluster of capillary loops cupped in the nephron head that serves as an initial filter:
    glomerulus
  6. Smallest branch of an artery, connects with capillaries:
    arteriole
  7. hormone that stimulates productio of RBCs in the bone marrow:
    erythropoietin
  8. the abnormal presence of blood in the urine:
    hematuria
  9. an abnormal excess of serum proteins (e.g. albumin) in the urine:
    proteinuria
  10. excess accumulation of fluid in the body tissues:
    edema
  11. high blood pressure:
    hypertension
  12. the secretion of small amounts of urine in relation to fluid intake:
    oliguria
  13. The absence of urine production; indicates kidney shutdown or failure:
    anuria
  14. a nephrotic syndrome caused by degenerative lesions of the renal tubules of the nephrons, especially the thin basement membrane of the glomerulus that helps support the capillary loops; marked by edema, ablbuminuria, and decreased seru albumin:
    nephrosis
  15. a disease attacking collagen tissues, the protein substance of the white fibers (collagenous fibers) of skin, tendon, bone, cartilage and other connective tissues; any of a group of diseases that cause widespread changes in the connective tissues
    collagen disease
  16. outflow and accumulation of serous fluid (blood and lymphy serum) in the abdominal cavity; also known as abdominal or peritoneal dropsy:
    ascites
  17. lipid droplets found in the urine composed mostly of cholesterol esters:
    lipiduria
  18. a basic test of nephron function by measuring its ability to normally filter urea nitrogen, a product of protein metabolism, from the blood.
    blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
  19. the accumulation of ketones, intermediate products of fat metabolism, in the blood:
    Ketosis
  20. low blood pressure:
    hypotension
  21. Bone disease resulting from defective bone formation. The general term dystrophy applies to any disorder aising from faulty nutrition:
    osteodystrophy
  22. Chief nitrogen carrying product of dietary protein metabolism; appears in bllood, lymph and urine:
    urea
  23. nitrogen carrying product of normal tissue protein breakdown; excreted in the urine:
    creatinine
  24. An excess of urea and other nitrogenous substances in the blood:
    Azotemia
  25. process of separating crystalloids and colloids in solution by the difference in their rates of diffusion through a semipermeable membrane; cyrstalloids (e.g. blood sugar and other metabolites) pass through readily and colloids pass through slowly or not at all:
    dialysis
  26. a serous membrane lining the absominal and pelvic walls and under surface of the diaphragm, forming a sac enclosing the body's vital visceral organs within the cavity.
    peritoneal cavity
  27. a diet based on the theory that diets high in acidic foods, such as animal proteins, caffeine, and simple sugars, will disrupt the body's normal pH balance, which is slightly alkaline:
    acid and alkaline diets

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