infection control

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infection control
2010-11-02 20:47:49

iggy chapter 25
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  1. pathogen
    any microorganism capable of causing disease
  2. communicable
    transmitted from person to person
  3. pathogenicity (virulence)
    ability to cause disease
  4. Normal Flora
    the bodies own characteristic bacteria
  5. colonization
    microorganisms that are found in the tissues of the host but do not cause symptomatic disease because of normal flora
  6. Transmission of infection
    three things must be present
    • reservoir:or source of infectious agent inanimate and animate:person, animal,soil,water,insects
    • susceptible host with a portal of entry
    • mode of transmission
  7. exotoxins
    • protein molecules released by bacteria to affect host cells at a distant site.
    • -botulism, tetnus, diptheria
  8. endotoxins
    • are proteins produced in the cell walls of certain bacteria and released only when the cell lysis
    • -typhoid, meningcoccal diseases
  9. Contact transmission
    • -direct:The source and the host have direct contact:skin to skin, membrane/membrane
    • -indirect: come into contact with secretions, droplets etc.
    • -CDC recommends to stay 3 feet away from pt with droplet infection
    • -Precautions:private room, or cohort,wear gloves hand hygeine,gown,dedicate equipment to patient room
  10. Airbourne transmission
    • AIIR handling/N95 respirators: would be used here in order to prevent the suspended particles from infecting others
    • precautions:private room required with negative airflow device keep doors closed
    • N95 respirators for suspected TB, pt must wear mask if leaving room
    • Droplet precaution:private room/cohort, mask when working within 3 feet
    • mask when transporting outside of room
  11. vectors
    • insects that go between 2 or more hosts
    • -deer tick
  12. Infections can be prevented in 5 ways
    • hand hygeine
    • PPE (personal protective equipment)
    • Adequate staffing
    • disinfection/sterilization
    • patient placement and transport
  13. Alcohol based hand rubs (ABHRs)
    ineffective against spore forming organisms such as CDiff
  14. Sterilization
    destroying all living organisms and bacterial spores
  15. disinfection
    does not kill spores and only ensures a reduction in the level of disease causing organisms
  16. MRSA (Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus
    • commonly found on the skin and perineum and in the nose of many people
    • spread by direct contact
    • susceptible to only a few drugs(Vancomycin and Linezolid)
  17. physical assessment and clinical manifestations, of infections
    fever >101 chills and malaise, lymphadenopathy(enlarged lymph nodes)pharyngitis, and Gi disturbances(diarrhea and vomiting)
  18. interventions for a person with infection
    Monitor temperature, BP, pulse, respiration, skin color/temp, LOC, IandO, seizure activity, WBC, hemoglobinm Hct, administer antipyretic meds, cover the pt with a sheet if appropriate, sponge bathe,incourage fluid intake, encourage proper oral hygiene