A&P UNIT 5 ENDOCRINE

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claire_0068
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46876
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A&P UNIT 5 ENDOCRINE
Updated:
2010-11-02 21:18:32
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UNIT ENDOCRINE
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ENDOCRINE
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  1. THE PITUITARY GLAND (HYPOPHYSIS) HAS 2 LOBES WHAT ARE THEY AND WHAT ARE THEY MADE OF?
    ADENOHYPOPHYSIS- ANTERIOR LOBE MADE OF GLANDULAR TISSUE.

    NEUROHYPOPHYSIS- POSTERIOR LOBE MADE OF NEURAL TISSUE
  2. WHAT ARE RELEASING HORMONESKNOWN AS?
    TROPIC HORMONES
  3. THE HYPOTHALMUS PRODUCES INHIBITING AND RELEASING HORMONES THAT EFFECT WHAT PART OF THE PITUITARY GLAND?
    THE ADENOHYPOPHYSIS
  4. EXAMPLES OF TROPIC HORMONE PRODUCED BY THE HYPOTHALAMUS INCLUDE?
    TRH, AND CRH
  5. WHAT 6 HORMONES DOES THE ADENOHYPOPHYSIS RELEASE?
    • 1. GROWTH HORMONE (GH)
    • 2. THYROID STIMULATING HORMONE (TSH)
    • 3. ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE (ACTH)
    • 4. FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE (FSH)
    • 5.LUTEINIZING HORMONE (LH)
    • 6.PROLACTIN (PRL)
  6. HORMONES RELEASED BY THE NEUROHYPOPHYSIS ARE?
    • VASOPRESSIN AKA ANTIDIURETIC HORMONE (ADH)
    • AND OXYTOCIN
  7. WHAT DO C OR CLEAR CELLS SECRETE?
    CALCITONIN
  8. WHAT IS CALCITONIN?
    CALCIUM REGULATING HORMONE, HELPS REGUALTE BLOOD CALCIUM LEVELS. IT IS RELEASED IN RESPONSE TO HIGH BLOOD CALCIUM LEVELS. SO IT DECREASES BLOOD CALCIUM
  9. WHAT I ANTIDIURETIC HORMONE AND WHAT DOES IT AFFECT?
    AFFECTS THE KINDEYS AND BLOOD VESSELS LEADS TO REABSORPTION OF WATER IN THE KIDNEYS THUS HELPS BODY RETAIN FLUID AND CONTROL BP.
  10. WHAT IS OXYTOCIN?
    HORMONE THST CAUSED CONTRACTIONS OF THE UTERUS DURING CHILDBIRTH AND CAUSES MILK EJECTION
  11. WHERE ARE FOLLICE CELLS?

    WHAT DO FOLLICLES DO?
    FORM THE OUTTER WALL OF TH THYROID


    SECRETE THE THYROID HORMONES
  12. THYROID FOLLICLES CENTER ARE FILLED WITH A STICKY PROTEIN CALLED
    COLLOID AND HOLDS 2-3MONTH SUPPLY OF THYROID HORMONES
  13. WHAT IS A GOITER?
    A HUGE MASS OR INLARGMENT OF THE FOLLIICLE CELLS CAUSED BY HIGH LEVELS OF TSH
  14. WHAT IS HYPOTHYROIDISM? AND IT AFFECTS?
    • IT IS CAUSED DUE TO LOW IODINE,WITHOUT IODINE THYROID HORMONES CANT BE PRODUCED.
    • IT SLOWS METABOLIC RATE AND O2 CONSUMPTION PT'S BECOME BRADY. BRITTLE NAILS DRY SKIN THINNING HAIR. KIDS SLOW BONE GROWTH SHORT FOR AGE
  15. WHAT IS HYPERTHYROIDISM? AND ITS AFFECTS?
    • CAUSED BY HYPERSECRETION OF THYROID HORMONES.
    • ELEVATED O2 ANS MEATABLOLIC HEAT PRODUCTION, MUSCLE WEAKNESS, WIGHT LOSS IRRITABILITY INSOMNIA, TACHY.
  16. WHAT ISGRAVES DISEASE?
    FORM OF HYPERTHYROIDISM CAUSING A GOITER.TRH AND TSH PRODUCTION ARE BLOCKED. QACCOMPANIED BY EXOTHALMUS( BULGING OF THE EYES FROM THE EMLARGMENT OF MUSCLES AND TISSUES OF THE SOCKETS)
  17. WHAT IS THE PARATHYROID GLAND?
    CLUSTER OF SMALL GLANDS ON THE POSTERIOR OF THE THYROID GLAND. SECRETES PTH
  18. PARATHYROID HORMONE (PTH)?
    SECRETED IN RESPONSE TO A DROP IN CALCIUM LEVELS. ITS ACTS TO RAISE THOSE LEVELS. IN KIDNEYS CAUSES A REABSORPTION OF CALCIUM.
  19. WHAT IS THE ADRENAL MEDULLA COMPOSED OF? AN WHAT DOES IT DO?
    COMPOSED OF MODIFIED SYMPATHETIC GANGLIA THAT SECRETE CATECHOLAMINES

    CONTRIBUTES TO THE FIGHT OR FLIGHT RESPONSE. VERY RAPID RESPONSE.
  20. WHAT IS THE ADRENA CORTEX COMPOSED OF? AND WHAT DOES IT DO?
    FROMS THE OUTER 3/4 OF THE ADRENAL GLAND. IT SECRETES STEROID HORMONES ALDOSTERONE, GLUCOCORTICOIDS LIKE CORTISOL. AND SEX HORMONES LIKE ANDROGENS
  21. WHAT CELLS CONTAIN CORTISOL?
    ALL NUCLEATED CELLS IN THE BODY HAVE RECEPTORS IN THEIR CYTOPLASM FOR THIS HORMONE IT HAS WIDE RANGING EFECTS ON THE BODY AND IS ESSENTIAL FOR LIFE
  22. WHAT IS THE CONTROL PATHWAY FOR CORTISOL SECRETION?
    • 1. HYPOTHALAMUS SECRETES CRH INTO HYPOTHALAMUS-HYPOPHYSEAL PORTAL SYSTEM.
    • 2. CRH STIMULATES THE RELEASE ACTH FROM THE ANTERIOR PIT.
    • 3.ACTH ACTS ON THE ADRENAL CORTEX TO PROMOTE SYNTHESIS AND RELEASE OF CORTISOL
    • 4.CORTISOL ACTS ASA NEGATIVE FEEDBACK SIGNAL TO INHIBIT ACTH AND CRH SECRETION
  23. FACTORS CONTROLLING CORTISOL SECRETION?
    CIRCADIAN RHYTHM- PEAKS IN THE MORNING/ DIMINISHES IN THE NIGHT.

    STRESS INCREASES SECRETION.
  24. EFFECTS OF CORTISOL ON THE BODY?
    • 1. INVOLVED IN THE MEDIATION OF LONG TERM STRESS ON THE BODY.
    • 2.CORTISOL ID REQUIRED FOR SOME OTHER HORMONES TO BE EFFECTIVE.
    • 3. CORTISOL IS A CATABOLIC (BREAKDOWN)
    • 4. PROTECTION AGAINST HYPOGLYCEMIA. METABOLIC EFFECTS OFCORTISOL ARE AIMES AT PREVENTING HYPOGLYCEMIA
    • 5.IT SUPRESS THE IMMUNE SYSTEM.
    • 6.INFLUENCES BRAIN FUNCTION, BOTH DEFIENCY AND EXCESS CAUSES MOOD CHANGE AND ALTERATION OF MEMORY.
  25. OVERVIEW OFTHE PANCREAS?
    • 1. ITS BOTH AN ENDOCRINE AND EXOCRINE GLAND
    • 2. THE EXOCRINE PART PRODUCES DIGESTIVE ENZYMES.
    • 3.THE ISLETS OFLANGERHANS COMPRISE THE ENDOCRINE PART.
  26. WHAT ARE THE 2 MAJOR HORMONES SECRETED BY THE ISLETS OF LANGERHANS?
    INSULIN AND GLUCAGON
  27. INSULIN?
    PRODUCED BET CELLS STIMULATES THE UPTAKE OF GLUCOSE IN TO THE CELLS OF THE BODY THEREBY LOWERING BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVELS.
  28. GLUCAGON?
    PRODUCED B THE ALPHA CELLS STIMULATES BREAKDOWN OF GLYCOGEN BY THE LIVER AND SYNTHESIS OF GLUCOSE THEREBY RAISING BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVELS. IT IS SECRETED BETWEEN MEALS WHEN BLOOD SUGAR LEVELS HAVE DROPPED.
  29. WHAT IS DIABETES MELLITUS?
    RESULTS FROM EITHER HYPOSECRETION OR HYPERSECRETION OF INSULIN. WHEN INSULIN IS ABSENT OR DEFIECENT BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVELS REMAIN HIGH AFTER A MEAL BECAUSE GLUCOSE IS UNABLE TO ENTER MOST TISSUE CELLS.
  30. WHAT DO OVARIES SECRETE? AND WHAT ARE THE EFFECTS?
    THEY SECRETE ESTROGEN AND PROGESTERONE.

    • ESTROGEN IS IMPORTANT FOR EGG DEVELOPMENT INSIDE THE OVARIAN FOLLICLES AND HAS EFFECTS THROUGH TH BODY.
    • PROGESTERONE IS IMPORTANT AFTER OVULATION FOR MAINTAINING THE INTEGRITY OF THE UTERNE LINING AND DURING PREGNANCY.
  31. WHAT DO TESTES SECRETE? AND WHAT ARE THE EFFECTS?
    SECRETE THE MALE STEROID HORMONE TESTOSTERONE. IT AIDES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF GAMETES AND IS RESPONSIBLE FOR SECONDARY SEX CHARACTERISTICS AND CONTROLS LIBIDO.
  32. WHERE IS THE PINEAL GLAND LOCATED? WHAT DOES IT PRODUCE?
    ITS LOCATED IN THE DIENCEPHALON OF THE BRAIN, PRODUCES AMINE HORMONE MELATONIN IN RESPONSE TO DARKNESS.
  33. WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF MELATONIN?
    HELPS TO MAINTAIN PROPER CIRCADIN RYTHMS (SLEEP WAKE CYCLE). HELPS CONTROL THE BODYS BIOLOGICAL CLOCK ITS A POWERFUL ANTIOXIDANT PROVIDING PROTECTION AGAINST FREE RADICALS.
  34. OVERVIEW OF THE THYMUS, LOCATION? SIZE? SECRETES?
    • LOCATED JUST ANTERIOR TO THE AORTA.
    • ITS LARGE AT BIRTH AND INCREASES IN SIZE UNTIL PUBERTY THEN DECREASES IN SIZE UNTIL BEING ALMOST UNOTICIBLE IN ADULTS.
    • IT SECRETES PEPTIDE HORMONES THYMOSIN AND THYMOPOIETIN. THEY BOTH PLAY A ROLE IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF T CELLS AND NORMAL FUNCTIONING OF IMMUNITY
  35. WHAT DOES THE ATRIA OF THE HEART SECRETE?
    THE MUSCLE SECRETE ATRIAL NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE THAT REDUCES BLOOD VOL. BLOOD. PRESSURE AND BLOOD SODIUM CONCENTRATION BY SIGNALING THE KIDNEYS TO INCREASE PRODUCTION OF SALTY URINE AND INHIBITING RELEASE OF ALDOSTERONE.
  36. WHAT DOES THE GI TRACT RELEASE?
    SEVERAL PEPTIDE HORMONES ARE RELEASED THAT HELP REGUALTE A WIDE VARIETY OF DIGESTIVE FUNCTIONS
  37. WHAT DOES THE PLACENA SECRETE?
    IT SECRETES SEVERL STEROID AND PROTEIN HORMONES THAT INFLUENCE THE COURSE OF PREGNANCY.
  38. WHAT DO THE KIDNEYS SECRETE? AND WHAT ARE THE EFFECTS OF THE HORMONES?
    THEY SECRRETE ERYTHROPOIETIN IN RESPONSE TO LOW O2 LEVELS IN KIDNEY TISSUES. IT SIGNALS THE BONE MARROW TO INCREASE PRODUCTION OF RBC'S.

    IT ALSO SECRETES RENIN WHICH INITATES THE RENIN -ANGIOTENSIN MECHANISM

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