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The part of an enzyme molecule where a substrate molecule attaches (by means of weak chemical bonds); typically, a pocket or groove on the enzyme's surface.
The movement of a substance across a biological membrane against its concentration gradient, aided by specific transport proteins and requiring input of energy (often as ATP).
adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
Main energy source for cells.
A transport protein in the plasma membrane of some plant or animal cells that facilitates the diffusion of water across the membrane
The aerobic harvesting of energy from food molecules; the energy-releasing chemical breakdown of food molecules, such as glucose, and the storage of potential energy in a form that cells can use to perform work; involves glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation (the electron transport chain and chemiosmosis).
Energy available in molecules for release in a chemical reaction; a form of potential energy.
An organic molecule serving as a cofactor. Most vitamins function as coenzymes in important metabolic reactions.
A nonprotein molecule or ion that is required for the proper functioning of an enzyme. See also coenzyme.
A substance that reduces the activity of an enzyme by binding to the enzyme's active site in place of the substrate. A competitive inhibitor's structure mimics that of the enzyme's substrate.
An increase or decrease in the density of a chemical substance in an area. Cells often maintain concentration gradients of ions across their membranes.
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