Connecting Ideas

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Connecting Ideas
2010-11-20 17:56:20
expository writing grammar

Grammer: Connecting Ideas
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  1. punctuation rule for connecting ideas using a coordinating word
    comma comes before coordinating word if both clauses are independent
  2. coordinating word and, not only...but...also, both...and
  3. coordinating word but, yet
    concession or contrast
  4. coordinating word or, nor, either, neither
    alternatives, choice, or option
  5. coordinating word for
    cause or reason
  6. coordinating word so
  7. coordinating word but
    comparison or contrast
  8. subordinating words/phrases although, though, while, even though, in spite of the fact that, despite the fact that
    concession or contrast
  9. subordinating words/phrases because, since, as, in that
    cause or reason
  10. subordinating words/phrases so that, such that
  11. subordinating words/phrases so that, in order that, (in order) to*
  12. subordinating words/phrases if, even if, unless, provided that, as long as, when(ever), wherever
  13. subordinating words/phrases when, after, before, until, till, as, while, since, once, now that, whenever, as soon as, by the time that
    time or sequence
  14. subordinating words/phrases where, wherever
  15. subordinating words/phrases whereas, if
    comparison or contrast
  16. transition words/phrases in addition, furthermore, moreover, also, besides
  17. transition words/phrases however, nevertheless, on the other hand, still, in contrast, instead, on the contrary
    concession or contrast
  18. transition words/phrases alternatively, on the other hand
    alternatives, choice, or option
  19. transition words/phrases therefore, consequently, thus, for that reason
    cause or reason
  20. transition words/phrases as a result, therefore, thus, consequently, for this reason
  21. transition words/phrases otherwise
  22. transition words/phrases then, first, second, third, finally, next, afterwards, after that, before that, meanwhile, at first, eventually
    time or sequence
  23. transition words/phrases similarly, likewise, in contrast
    comparison or contrast
  24. transition words/phrases in other words, that is
  25. transition words/phrases for example, for instance, in general, overall, in conclusion
    example, generalization, or conclusion
  26. punctuation rule for connecting ideas with subordinating word
    If the subordinate clause comes first, it is always followed by a comma. If the main clause comes first, no comma needed.
  27. punctuation rule for connecting ideas using transition words
    semicolon or period at the end of the first sentence, or place word at the beginning of second and place comma after transition
  28. parallel structure
    • matching grammatical structures jioned by coordinating words
    • elements are equal
    • beginnning=end
  29. types of parallel structures
    • verb phrases
    • infinitives
    • -ing words
    • nouns/noun phrases
    • adjectives
    • adverbs
    • subordinate clauses (that & who)
  30. verb phrases
    same type of tense
  31. infinitives
    verbs with "to" in front
  32. -ing words
    both sides have to be equal
  33. nouns/noun phrases
    both sides has to be equal