Card Set Information
What is a neuron?
Neurons are brains cells that are the basic unit of the nervous system
Summarise the action potential process.
,the neuron is more negative than the outside
, AP travels down axon and continues until it reaches the terminal button
3. During an AP, Na+ into the cell while K+ rushes out of the cell-->the cell returning to resting state
What is the process of neural communication?
1. Action potential causes the vesicle to bind to the cell membrane
2. Neural transmitters are released into the synaptic cleft
3. Neural transmitters bind to receptors located on dendrites of the next cell
4. Ion channels open to allow Na+ to enter the cell= small de-polarisation= graded potential
5. Accumulation of graded potential= action potential
How does dopamine affect neurotransmitters?
Confuses the dopamine transporters, blocks transporters->Dopamine remains in the cleft for longer->over activation of dopamine receptors in the next cell
Describe the structure and functions of the medulla.
- contain tracts carrying signals between the brain and the rest of the body
- Regulates heartbeat, blood pressure and respiration
- regulates vomiting, coughing, sneezing and swallowing reflexes
What is the reticular formation?
- Is a region that runs through the brainstem.
- Neurotransmitters are produced here and transferred to axons throughout the body.
- Involved in actions such as awaking/sleeping cycle, and filtering incoming stimuli to discriminate irrelevant background stimuli
Describe the structure and function of the pons.
- Regulates consciousness and attention
- Contains neurons that are active during wake and inactive during sleep
- damage= coma
Describe the function of the cerebellum.
- motor control and correction
- damage= lack of coordination, problems with balance and posture
Describe the function of the tectum.
- Basic visual and auditory function
- Detects movement and sound in environment- coordination of movement towards sound
Describe the function of the tegmentum.
- serves a variety of functions related to movement
Describe the functions of the hypothalamus.
- regulation of motivational behaviour for survival
- activates pituatary hormones
- homeostasis- keeping vital processes within a fairly narrow range. blood temp, glucose levels, metabolism
- also controls the autonomic nervous system
Describe the functions of the thalamus.
- processes sensory information and transmit it to higher brain centres
- highlights, dilter and de-emphasises these messages
Describe the autonomic nervous system and its sub-systems.
- serves basic life functions
-sympathetic nervous system- activated in response to threats- flight or fight
- parasympathetic nervous system- supports mundane/ routine activites, maintains energy
Describe the functions of the limbic system.
Describe the functions of the basal ganglia.
- important for reward, movement, judgement
Describe the functions of the amygdala
(from the limbic system)–recognises fear and attaches emotional significance to events.It orchestrates a defence response.
Illustrate which parts of the brain store the various types of memory.
Hippocampus- episodic and somantic
Basal ganglia- procedural memory
Prefrontal cortex- STM
Describe the different types of brain scans.
CT- xray, structure only, uses brain damage
MRI- Magnets/hydrogen, structure only, uses brain damage
PET- Radioactive glucose, function only, use function during
fMRI- oxygen, structure and function, uses during a task
Describe the cerebral cortex.
- folded to increase surface area
: gyrus: filled, sulcus: empty bits
- allows flexible construction of sequences voluntary movements
- permits subtle discrimination among complex sensory patterns
- makes possible symbolic thinking
Name the different lobes of cerebral cortex.
frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal.
Describe the frontal lobes.
- Responsible for movement, attention, memory, personality, social skills, planning
- Primary area– responsible for motor function
Describe the parietal lobes.
- Responsible for touch
- Primary area– called the somanto sensory cortex– responsible for touch inputs from different areas of the body
Describe the occipital lobes.
- Responsible for vision
Describe the temporal lobes.
- Responsible for hearing
so, tell me all you know about the fucking hemispheres.
right- non linguistic functions
corpus callosum- band of neural fibres connecting the left and right hemispheres