Psychology- Psychobiology

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s00kylala
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46923
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Psychology- Psychobiology
Updated:
2010-11-02 23:24:12
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Psychobiology neurons
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4- Psychobiology
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  1. What is a neuron?
    Neurons are brains cells that are the basic unit of the nervous system
  2. Summarise the action potential process.
    • 1. When at rest,the neuron is more negative than the outside
    • 2. During signalling, AP travels down axon and continues until it reaches the terminal button
    • 3. During an AP, Na+ into the cell while K+ rushes out of the cell-->the cell returning to resting state
  3. What is the process of neural communication?
    • 1. Action potential causes the vesicle to bind to the cell membrane
    • 2. Neural transmitters are released into the synaptic cleft
    • 3. Neural transmitters bind to receptors located on dendrites of the next cell
    • 4. Ion channels open to allow Na+ to enter the cell= small de-polarisation= graded potential
    • 5. Accumulation of graded potential= action potential
  4. How does dopamine affect neurotransmitters?
    Confuses the dopamine transporters, blocks transporters->Dopamine remains in the cleft for longer->over activation of dopamine receptors in the next cell
  5. Describe the structure and functions of the medulla.
    • - contain tracts carrying signals between the brain and the rest of the body
    • - Regulates heartbeat, blood pressure and respiration
    • - regulates vomiting, coughing, sneezing and swallowing reflexes
  6. What is the reticular formation?
    • - Is a region that runs through the brainstem.
    • - Neurotransmitters are produced here and transferred to axons throughout the body.
    • - Involved in actions such as awaking/sleeping cycle, and filtering incoming stimuli to discriminate irrelevant background stimuli
  7. Describe the structure and function of the pons.
    • - Regulates consciousness and attention
    • - Contains neurons that are active during wake and inactive during sleep
    • - damage= coma
  8. Describe the function of the cerebellum.
    • - motor control and correction
    • - damage= lack of coordination, problems with balance and posture
  9. Describe the function of the tectum.
    • - Basic visual and auditory function
    • - Detects movement and sound in environment- coordination of movement towards sound
  10. Describe the function of the tegmentum.
    - serves a variety of functions related to movement
  11. Describe the functions of the hypothalamus.
    • - regulation of motivational behaviour for survival
    • - activates pituatary hormones
    • - homeostasis- keeping vital processes within a fairly narrow range. blood temp, glucose levels, metabolism
    • - also controls the autonomic nervous system
  12. Describe the functions of the thalamus.
    • - processes sensory information and transmit it to higher brain centres
    • - highlights, dilter and de-emphasises these messages
  13. Describe the autonomic nervous system and its sub-systems.
    • - serves basic life functions
    • -sympathetic nervous system- activated in response to threats- flight or fight
    • - parasympathetic nervous system- supports mundane/ routine activites, maintains energy
  14. Describe the functions of the limbic system.
    • - learning/memory
    • - emotion/motivation
  15. Describe the functions of the basal ganglia.
    - important for reward, movement, judgement
  16. Describe the functions of the amygdala
    (from the limbic system)–recognises fear and attaches emotional significance to events.It orchestrates a defence response.
  17. Illustrate which parts of the brain store the various types of memory.
    • Hippocampus- episodic and somantic
    • Basal ganglia- procedural memory
    • Prefrontal cortex- STM
  18. Describe the different types of brain scans.
    • CT- xray, structure only, uses brain damage
    • MRI- Magnets/hydrogen, structure only, uses brain damage
    • PET- Radioactive glucose, function only, use function during
    • fMRI- oxygen, structure and function, uses during a task
  19. Describe the cerebral cortex.
    • - folded to increase surface area: gyrus: filled, sulcus: empty bits
    • - allows flexible construction of sequences voluntary movements
    • - permits subtle discrimination among complex sensory patterns
    • - makes possible symbolic thinking
  20. Name the different lobes of cerebral cortex.
    frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal.
  21. Describe the frontal lobes.
    • - Responsible for movement, attention, memory, personality, social skills, planning
    • - Primary area– responsible for motor function
  22. Describe the parietal lobes.
    • - Responsible for touch
    • - Primary area– called the somanto sensory cortex– responsible for touch inputs from different areas of the body
  23. Describe the occipital lobes.
    - Responsible for vision
  24. Describe the temporal lobes.
    - Responsible for hearing
  25. so, tell me all you know about the fucking hemispheres.
    • left- language
    • right- non linguistic functions
    • corpus callosum- band of neural fibres connecting the left and right hemispheres

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