Medical Terminology OFT 140

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Author:
r13wolf
ID:
46933
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Medical Terminology OFT 140
Updated:
2010-11-03 11:28:59
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Chapter Eleven Endocrine System
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Description:
Combining Forms; Anatomical Terms
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  1. Aden/o
    gland
  2. Adren/o
    adrenal gland
  3. Adrenal/o
    adrenal gland
  4. Andr/o
    male
  5. Crin/o
    to secrete
  6. Dips/o
    thirst
  7. Gluc/o
    sugar
  8. glucos/o
    sugar
  9. glyc/o
    sugar
  10. glycos/o
    sugar
  11. hormon/o
    hormone (an urging on)
  12. Ket/o
    ketone bodies
  13. Keton/o
    ketone bodies
  14. Pancreat/o
    pancreas
  15. Thym/o
    thymus gland
  16. Thyr/o
    thyroid gland (shield)
  17. Thyroid/o
    thyroid gland (shield)
  18. Adrenal Glands
    • Suprarenal glands
    • - located next to each kidney
    • - the adrenal cortex secretes steroid hormones & the adrenal medulla secretes epinephrine & norepinephrine
  19. Steroid Hormones
    • secreted by: adrenal glands (suprarenal glands)
    • - 3 types: Glucocorticoids, Mineral Corticosteroids, Androgens
    • - regulate carbohydrate metabolism & salt & water balance
    • - some effects on sexual characteristics
  20. Epinephrine, Norepinephrine
    • secreted by: adrenal glands (suprarenal glands)
    • - affects sympathetic nervous system in stress response
  21. Ovaries
    • located one on each side of the uterus in the female pelvis
    • - functions: to secrete estrogen & progesterone
  22. Estrogen, Progesterone
    • secreted by: ovaries
    • - responsible for the development of female secondary sex characteristics & the regulation of reproduction
  23. Pancreas
    • (Islets of Langerhans)
    • - located behind the stomach in front of the first & second lumbar vertebrae
    • - function: to secrete insulin & glucagon
  24. Insulin, Glucagon
    • secreted by: pancreas (islets of Langerhans)
    • - regulates: carbohydrate/sugar metabolism
  25. Parathyroid Gland
    • location: posterior aspect of the thyroid gland in the neck
    • - function: to secrete parathyroid hormone (PTH)
  26. Parathyroid Hormone
    • secreted by: parathyroid gland
    • - regulates calcium & phosphorus metabolism
  27. Pineal Gland
    • - location: center of the brain
    • - function: to secrete melatonin & serotonin
  28. Melatonin
    • secreted by: pineal gland
    • - function: unknown
    • - affects: onset of puberty
  29. Serotonin
    • secreted by: pineal gland
    • - a neurotransmitter that serves as the precursor to melatonin
  30. Pituitary Gland (Hyphosis)
    • - location: @ the base of the brain (anterior & posterior)
    • - function of anterior pituitary: secretes thyroid-stimulating hormone, adrendocorticotropic hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, melanocyte-stimulating hormone, growth hormone, & prolactin
    • - function of posterior pituitary: releases anitdiuretic hormone & oxytocin
  31. Anterior Pituitary (Adenohypophysis)
    • - location: base of the brain
    • - function: secrete thyroid-stimulation hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH), growth hormone (GH), prolactin (lactogenic hormone)
  32. Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
    • secreted by: anterior pituitary
    • - stimulates secretion from thyroid gland
  33. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)
    • secreted by: anterior pituitary
    • - stimulates secretion from adrenal cortex
  34. Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
    • secreted by: anterior pituitary
    • - initiates growth of ovarian follicle
    • - stimulates secretion of estrogen (females) & sperm production (males)
  35. Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
    • secreted by: anterior pituitary
    • - causes ovulation
    • - stimulates secretion of pregesterone by corpus luteum
    • - causes secretion of testosterone in testes
  36. Melantocyte-Stimulating Hormone (MSH)
    • secreted by: anterior pituitary
    • - affects skin pigmentation
  37. Growth Hormone (GH)
    • secreted by: anterior pituitary
    • - influences growth
  38. Prolactin (Lactogenic Hormone)
    • secreted by: anterior pituitary
    • - stimulates breast develoment & milk development during pregnancy
  39. Posterior Pituitary (Neurohypophysis)
    • - location: base of the brain
    • - function: secretes antidiuretic hormone (ADH), & oxytocin
  40. Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
    • secreted by: posterior pituitary
    • - influences the absorption of water by kidney tubules
  41. Oxytocin
    • secreted by: posterior pituitary
    • - influences uterine contraction
  42. Testes
    • - location: one on each side within the scrotum in the male
    • - function: to secrete testosterone
  43. Testosterone
    • secreted by: testes
    • - affects masculinization & reproduction
  44. Thymus Gland
    • - location: in the mediastinal cavity, anterior to & above the heart
    • - function: secretes thymosin
  45. Thymosin
    • secreted by: thymus gland
    • - regulates immune response
  46. Thyroid Gland
    • - location: in front of the neck
    • - function: secrete triiodothyronine (T3), thryoxine (T4), & calcitonin
  47. Triiodothyronine (T3), Thyroxine (T4)
    • secreted by: thyroid gland
    • - known as the thyroid hormone & regulates metabolism
  48. Calcitonin
    • secreted by: thyroid gland
    • - regulates calcium & phosphorus metabolism

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