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What are the two types of cells that secrete mucous?
- 1) Submucosal glands (only in bronchi)
- 2) Goblet cells (only in bronchi) - Clara cells (after bronchi until alveoli)
What is the main component of mucous?
What are the two types of mucous, where are they located, and what do they do?
- 1) Sol: located around cilia to allow for easy movement. Less viscous.
- 2) Gel: located above cilia to catch particulate matter. More viscous.
What is mucociliary clearance?
Movement by sol and gel mucous to move sputum from distal to proximal so the matter can be removed through the mouth.
What is the name of the membrane regulator to help with mucous production and how does it work?
- It is activated by PKA and binds ATP. Once bound, it opens to allow chloride and water to flow through passively
What is cystic fibrosis?
- Dysfunctional CFTR transporter.
- Buildup of thick, viscous mucous.
- Traps particles and causes inflammation and infection.
- Leads to death.
What is primary ciliary dyskinesia (Kartagener's syndrome)?
- Dysfunctional cilia because of a breakdown of dynein in the microtubules of the cilia.
- The cilia can't move mucous around efficiently.
- People live longer than those with Cystic fibrosis.
What cell performs xenobiotic metabolism in the lungs?
What are the two cells that line the lung alveoli?
- 1) Type I Alveolar: line epithelium
- 2) Type II Alveolar: secrete surfactant, lamellar bodies
What molecule protects elastin from destruction in the lungs and how does it work?
- Antiprotease α-1antitrypsin
- binds to serine proteases to be removed and degraded. (SERPIN: serine protease inhibitor)
Why DPPC in the alveoli?
Maintains structural integrity of the alveoli so they do not collapse.
Polar heads repulse and hydrophobic tails clump together to keep the alveoli expanded.
Is surfactant production from alveolar Type II cells constituitive or regulated?
What are the 3 roles of SP-A&D?
- 1) form lamellar bodies
- 2) recycle surfactant products
- 3) immune response with macrophages
What is the role of SP-B&C?
Insert phospholipids into surfactant monolayer
What is the function of SP-A&B?
Formation of tubular myelin
What is the main cause of NRDS?
No surfactant production so alveoli want to collapse.
What is a safe PC/SM ratio to see if a pre-term baby has healthy lungs and will not suffer from NRDS?
What is necessary to administer glucocorticoid steroid for an infant?
L/S ratio < 2
What are the three roles of lung macrophages (dust cells)?
- 1) oxygen radicals
- 2) inflammation
- 3) tissue repair