the use of individual brand names for each of a firm's products; the more the products vary in their usage or performance, the more likely it is that the firm should use individual brands
eg: procter & Gamble- Tide, Downy, Bounty...
number of product lines offered by a firm
number of categories within the product line
stock keeping units (SKUs)
individual items within each product category; smallest unit available for inventory control
the number of SKUs within a category
the set of assets and liabilities linked to a brand that add or subtract form the value provided by the product
...we know how good a brand is by how much equity it has
list- wat four aspects of a brand do experts look at to determine its equity?
measures how many consumers in the mrkt are familiar with the brand and what it stands for and have an opinion about it; created through repeated exposures of the various brand elements in the firm's communication to consumers
the relationship btw a product's benefits and its costs
the mental links that a consumer makes btw a brand and its key product attributes; can involve a logo, slogan, or famous personality
a set of human characteristics associated with a brand, which has symbolic and self expressive meanings to the consumers
occurs when a consumer buys the same brand's product or service repeatedly over time rather then buyg from multiple suppliers within the same category