Orchestratoin

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Orchestratoin
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2010-11-03 11:16:20
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orchestration
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Exam 4
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  1. Different types of beaters.
    Mallet, stick, brush, hammer
  2. The effect of different size beaters on a timpano.
    Large emphasizes the fundamental. Small heads make higher partials
  3. Ranges of the following timpani: 32 – 30-inch, 29 – 28-inch, 26 – 25-inch, and 23-inch. You do not have to memorize the sizes (in inches), just the ranges.
    D2-A2, F2-C3, Bb2-F3, D3-A3
  4. What part of the timpano range the most characteristic timpani sound is found.
    Middle
  5. The standard number of timpani in the orchestra
    4
  6. How to notate a change of pitch for timpani in English, French and Italian.
    Change, changez, muta
  7. How to notate a timpani roll and the preferable contemporary notation.
    Three slashes
  8. The special effects possible on timpani (according to Kennan).
    Wooden sticks, both sticks on drum, muffled, playing in center near edge, glissando, cymbal on drum.
  9. According to Kennan, which is easier on mallet instruments: playing entirely on “white” keys or playing on white and black keys?
    White and black
  10. The difference in tone between xylophone and marimba.
    Xylophone is bright, woodblockier, marimba is dark and mellow
  11. The range and transposition of a 5-octave marimba.
    c2.- e5
  12. The range and transposition of a glockenspiel (orchestra bells).
    Sounds 2 octaves higher, g3-c6
  13. According to Kennan, the most frequent function of the glockenspiel.
    Bright tang to melodies
  14. The result of rapid and extended passages on the glockenspiel.
    Blurred
  15. The ingenious feature that distinguishes the vibraphone from xylophone and marimba.
    Resonating tube
  16. How to elicit overtones from chimes (tubular bells).
    Lightly striking from above with the center of mallet
  17. The names of all pitched percussion instruments discussed in chapter 13 (those instruments that have sections devoted to them.)
    Timpani, roto-tom, xylophone, the marimba, bells, vibraphone, chimes, antique cymbals, musical saw, almglocken, the anvil.
  18. Types of staffs and clefs used for percussion instruments of indefinite pitch.
    Neutral or no clef
  19. How to notate the flam, drag, four-stroke ruff, roll, rim shot (according to Kennan).
    Flam grace note, two 16th, three 16th, three slashes trill
  20. What does laissez vibrer mean? How do you notate it? What instruments might use this notation? How do you indicate the opposite of laissez vibrer?
    Let vibrate, whole note with tie going nowhere
  21. The notation Ravel uses to distinguish rubbing the thumb on the tambourine as opposed to shaking the tambourine.
    Trill and slashes
  22. The difference between tam-tam and gong.
    Tamtam is flat or lsightly convex. Gong is dome shaped produces def pitch.
  23. The best solution (according to Kennan) to notating for the five blocks of the temple blocks.
    Using the five lines to indicate the five blocks
  24. What instrument was created to duplicate the sound of the “jaw-bone of an ass”?
    The vibra slap
  25. What is the basic setup of the drum (or trap) set?
    Snare, toms sus cymbals high hat bas
  26. The dynamic range of the percussion section compared to the rest of the orchestra.
    Greater at the extremes
  27. The minimum number of percussion players in most professional orchestras.
    3 and a timpanist
  28. The names of all percussion instruments of indefinite pitch discussed in chapter 14 (those instruments that have sections devoted to them.)
    • Vibra slap, set, chimes, temple blocks, wood block, castanets, gong, tamtam, tambourine, triangle, finger cymbals, sus cymbal,, cymbals, bass drum
    • Toms-toms, tabor, tenor drum, fied drum
  29. How many strings per octave does a harp have?
    7
  30. How the pedal mechanism of the harp works and what it does in regards to pitch.
    Push it down raises pitch
  31. How to notate pedal settings at the beginning of a work.
    • E f g# ab
    • Bb c# Db
  32. How to notate changes in pedal settings.
    Just the letter name
  33. Enharmonic possibilities on the harp and false spelling.
  34. How glissandi consisting of chords are performed on harp.
  35. The best way to notate harp glissandi (according to Kennan).
    the first 7 notes followed a line going up/down to the target note
  36. Which fingers harpists do not use.
    Pinkies
  37. Stretch of what interval is considered a safe practical limit.
    A 10th
  38. For maximum sonority from the harp which is preferable: flat keys or sharp keys?
    Flat
  39. How harmonics are produced on and notated for the harp.
    Note with the circle up top
  40. The dynamic range of the celesta.
    None
  41. Of the three registers of the piano (low, middle, high), which one is least effective in the context of the orchestra.
    Middle
  42. Kennan’s approach to writing for the piano as an orchestral instrument.
    Avoid ornate writing, simple, double an orchestra line.
  43. What “una corda” means.
    Soft pedal, one string
  44. The five special effects involving piano listed by Kennan.
    • Plucked strings
    • Gliss across the strings
    • Using a beater to strike the strings
    • Wind instrument playing into the strings
  45. Range and transposition of the harp, four-octave celesta and piano.
    • Cb 1 – g#7
    • Celesta sounds 8va higher C3- C7
    • A0 – C8

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