Medical Terminology OFT 140

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r13wolf
ID:
47035
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Medical Terminology OFT 140
Updated:
2010-11-03 20:59:12
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Chapter Eleven Endocrine System
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Symptomatic & Diagnostic Terms; Diagnostic Tests & Procedures
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  1. Exophthalmos, Exphthalmus
    • protrusion of one or both eyeballs
    • - often due to thyroid dysfunction or a tumor behind the eyeball
  2. Glucosuria, Glycosuria
    glucose (sugar) in the urine
  3. Hirsutism
    shaggy; an excessive growth of hair especially in unusual places
  4. Ketosis, Ketoacidosis, Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA)
    • presence of an abnormal amount of ketone bodies (acetone, beta-hydroxybutyric acid, & acetoacetic acid) in the blood & urine indicating an abnormal utilization of carbohydrates
    • - seen in: uncontrolled diabetes, & starvations (keto= alter)
  5. Metabolism
    all chemical processes in the body that result in growth, generation of energy, elimination of waste, & other body functions
  6. polydipsia
    excessive thirst
  7. Polyuria
    excessive urination
  8. Cushing Syndrome
    • adrenal glands
    • collection of signs & smptoms caused by an excessive level of cortisol hormone from any cause
    • - causes: excessive production by adrenal gland (often due to tumor), side effect from treatment with glucocorticoid (steroid) hormones- prednisone for asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, or other inflammatory diseases
    • - symptoms: upper body obesity, facial puffiness (moon-shaped appearance), hyperglycemia, weakness, thin & easily bruised skin with stria (stretch marks), hypertension & osteoporosis
  9. Adrenal Virilism
    • adrenal glands
    • - excessive output of the adrenal secretion of androgen (male sex hormone) in adult women owing to tumor or hyperplasia
    • - evidenced by: amenorrhea (absence of menstration), acne, hirsutism, & deepening of the voice
    • - (virilis= masculine)
  10. Diabetes Mellitus (DM)
    • pancreas
    • - metabolic disorder caused by an abnormal utilization of insulin secreted by the pancreas
    • - evidenced by: hyperglycemia, & glucosuria
    • - 2 types: type 1, & type 2
    • - (diabetes= passing through; mellitus= sugar)
  11. Insulin
    • secreted by: beta cells of Islet of Langerhans in the pancreas
    • - responsible for: regulating the metabolism of glucose
    • - (insulin= island)
  12. Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
    • pancreas
    • - diabetes in which there is no beta cell production of insulin
    • - patient dependent on insulin for survival
  13. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
    • pancreas
    • - diabetes in which the body produces insulin, but not enough, or there is insulin resistance (a defective use of the insulin that is produced)
    • - patient usually not dependent on insulin for survial
  14. Hyperinsulinism
    • pancreas
    • - condition that results in an excessive amount of insulin in the blood that draws sugar out of the bloodstream
    • - signs: hypoglycemia, fainting, & convulsions
    • - cause: often by an overdose of insulin, or by a tumor of the pancreas
  15. Hyperparathyroidism
    • hypersecretion of the parathyroid glands
    • - cause: usually a tumor
  16. Hypoparathyroidism
    hyposecretion of the parathyroid glands
  17. Pituitary Gland (Hypophysis)
    • considered the "master gland" because it secretes hormones that regulate the function of other glands
    • - regulates the: thyroid gland, adrenal glands, ovaries, & testicles
  18. Acromegaly
    • pituitary gland
    • disease characterized by large features, especially in the face & hands
    • - cause: hypersecretion of the pituitary hormone after puberty, when normal bone growth has stopped
    • - usually due to pituitary tumor
  19. Diabetes Insipidus
    • pituitary gland
    • condition of abnormal increase in urine output
    • - most commonly caused by: inadequate secretion of pituitary antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin)
    • - symptoms: polyuria, polydypsia, colorless urine (due to the inability of the kidneys to concentrate urine)
    • - (insipid= without taste)
  20. Pituitary Dwarfism
    • pituitary gland
    • condition of genital hyposecretion of growth hormone slowing growth & causing a short yet proportionate stature (not affecting intelligence)
    • - often treated during childhood with growth hormone
  21. Pituitary Gigantism
    • pituitary gland
    • condition of hypersecretion of growth hormone during childhood bone development that leads to an abnormal overgrowth of bone, especially of the long bones
    • - most often caused by: pituitary tumor
  22. Goiter
    • thyroid gland
    • - enlargement of the thyroid gland
    • - causes: tumor, lack of iodine in the diet, or inflammation
    • - (goiter= throat)
  23. Hyperthyroidism
    (Graves Disease, Thyrotoxicosis)
    • thyroid gland
    • - condition of hypersectretion of the thyroid gland
    • - characterized by: exophthalmia, tachycardia, goiter, & tumor
  24. Hypothyroidism
    • thyroid gland
    • - condition of hyposecretion of the thyroid gland causing low thyroid levels in the blood
    • - results: sluggishness, slow pulse, & obesity
    • - 2 types: myxedema, cretinism
  25. Myxedema
    • thyroid gland
    • - advanced hypothyroidism in adults
    • - characterized by: sluggishness, slow pulse, puffiness in the hands & face, & and dry skin
  26. Cretinism
    • thyroid gland
    • - condition of congenital hypothyroidism in children
    • - cause: thyroid gland that is either congenitally absent, or imperfectly developed
    • - effect: lack of mental development, & dwarfed physical stature
  27. Blood Sugar (BS), Blood Glucose
    • laboratory testing
    • - measurement of the level of sugar (glucose) in the blood
  28. Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS)
    • laboratory testing
    • - measurement of blood sugar level after a fast of 12 hours
  29. Postprandial Blood Sugar (PPBS)
    • laboratory testing
    • - measurement of blood sugar level after a meal, commonly after 2 hours
  30. Glucose Tolerance Test (GTT)
    • laboratory testing
    • - measurement of a body's ability to metabolize carbohydrates by administering a prescribed amount of glucose after a fasting period, then measuring blood & urine for glucose levels every hour thereafter- usually 4 to 6 hours
  31. Glycohemoglobin
    • laboratory testing
    • - molecule (fraction) in hemoglobin that rises in the blood as a result of an increased level of blood sugar
    • - common blood test
    • - used in: diagnosis & treatment of diabetes
    • - also called: glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c)
  32. Electrolytes
    • laboratory testing
    • - measurement of the level of specific ions (sodium, potassium, CO2, & chloride) in the blood
    • - electrolyte balance is essential for normal metabolism
  33. Thyroid Function Study
    • laboratory testing
    • - measurement of thyroid hormone levels in blood plasma to determine efficiency of glandular secretions
    • - includes: T3, T4, & TSH
  34. Urine Sugar & Ketone Studies
    • laboratory testing
    • - chemical tests to determine the presence of sugar or ketone bodies in the urine
    • - used as a screed for diabetes
  35. Computed Tomography (CT)
    • imaging procedure
    • - CT of the head is used to obtain a transverse view of the pituitary gland
  36. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
    • imaging procedure
    • - nonionizing images of magnetic resonance are useful in identifying abnormalities of pituitary, adrenal, pancreas, & thyroid glands
  37. Sonography
    • imaging procedure
    • - use: to identify endocrine pathology (ie, thyroid ultrasound)
  38. Thyroid Uptake & Image
    • imaging procedure
    • - nuclear image involving scan of the thyroid to visualize the radioactive accumulation of previously ingested isotopes
    • - use: to detect thyroid nodules or tumors

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