O Lecture 10/18/10

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green29dive5
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47036
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O Lecture 10/18/10
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2010-11-03 11:58:02
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Marine Ecology
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Marine Ecology
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  1. What are four characteristics of life?
    • 1. Capture, store, and transmit energy
    • 2. Capable of reproduction
    • 3. adapt to their environment
    • 4. Changes through time
  2. definition of ecology
    the study of the interrelationships between the physical and biological aspects of the environment
  3. pysical aspec6ts of the enviornment
    abotic
  4. biological aspects of the environment
    biotic
  5. How many species live in the ocean?
    • textbook - 250,000
    • but more like 750,000 to 1 million
  6. Who developed the taxonomic classification used in Zoology?
    Linnaeus 1735
  7. What is the device to remember the catagories in Linnaeus' classification?
    King Phillip Came Over From Gorgous Spain
  8. What are the categories in Linnaeus' classification
    • Kingdom
    • Phylum
    • Class
    • Order
    • Family
    • Genus
    • Species
  9. definition of species
    interbreed or the potential to interbreed
  10. What are the five major kingdoms
    • monara - Bacteria
    • Protista or Protoctista - single or multicelled
    • Fungi - not as many in the ocean
    • Plantae - Plants
    • Animalia - Animals
  11. Definition of a prokaryote
    group of organisms that lack a cell nucleus or any other membrane-bound organelles
  12. Definition of Eukaryote
    Organisms whose cells are organized into complex structures enclosed within membrane
  13. Who broke the phylogenetic tree of life into three parts?
    Carl Woese
  14. What are the 3 branchs on Carl Woese's tree
    • Bacteria
    • Archaea
    • Eukaryotes
  15. How is the phylogenetic tree of life divided?
    based on the difference in 16s rRNA genes
  16. 2 reasons that Archaea was split from the bacteria
    • 1. life cannot be classified by the 2 domain system
    • 2. some bacteria are so different genetically from other bacteria as they are from humans
  17. Definition of bacteria
    usually unicellular organisms
  18. When did bacteria start appearing?
    3bya
  19. Are bacteria prokaryotes or ekarotes?
    prokaryotes
  20. What are the 3 shapes of bacteria
    • spirilla
    • bacilli
    • cocci
  21. Definition of Archaea
    most are anaerobes
  22. Definition of anaerobes
    incapable of living in air
  23. When did archaea start appearing
    3.5 bya
  24. How do Archae and differ from Bacteria
    • form and structure of ribosomes
    • outside of cell
    • type and linkage of their lipids
  25. When do Eukaryotes appear?
    1.6-2.1 bya
  26. What are the two major marine provinces
    • the benthic
    • the pelagic
  27. definition of the benthic
    bottom
  28. definition of the pelagic
    water column
  29. Define areas in the ocean by depth
    • Epipelagic
    • Mesopelagic
    • Bathypelagic
    • Abyssopelagic
  30. Epipelagic
    surface - 200m
  31. Mesopelagic
    200-1000m
  32. Bathypelagic
    1000-4000m
  33. Abyssopelagic
    below 4000m
  34. Define areas of the ocean by light
    • Photic zone
    • Dysphotic Zone
    • Aphotic
  35. Photic Zone
    light sufficient for photosynthesis ~100m
  36. Dysphotic zone
    illumination is too weak for photosynthesis
  37. Aphotic
    no light from surface because it is all abosrbed by the water above

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