Muscle Origins, Insertions and actions

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reedbl
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47063
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Muscle Origins, Insertions and actions
Updated:
2010-11-03 13:47:44
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Muscle Origin Insertion action
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Top 20 Muscle Origin, Insertion and Action
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  1. Where does the Temporalis insert?
    • Anterior portion of mandibular ramus and coronoid process
  2. Where does the Temporalis originate?
    • Temporal fossa
  3. What does the temporalis do?
    • Elevates mandible; also involved in retraction and lateral excursion
  4. Where does the sternocleidomastoid originate?
    • Manubrium and medial portion of the clavicle
  5. Where does the sternocleidomastoid insert?
    • Mastoid process and superior nuchal line
  6. What does the sternocleidomastoid do?
    • Rotates and flexes atlanto-occipital joint; head; flexes neck; and unilaterally flexes neck ipsilaterally
  7. Where does the rectus abdominis originate?
    • Pubic crest and symphysis
  8. Where does the rectus abdominis insert?
    • Xiphoid process and inferior ribs (5–7)
  9. What does the rectus abdominis do?
    • Flexes lumbar spine; compresses abdomen; unilaterally flexes trunk ipsilaterally
  10. Where does the iliopsoas originate?
    • Iliacus: inner surface of ilium
    • Psoas major & Psoas minor: on intervertebral cartilages, along bodies and on lower borders of transverse processes of L1–5; body of T12, on sacrum lateral and inferior to L5–S1 articulation
  11. Where does the iliopsoas insert?
    • Iliacus & psoas major: lesser trochanter of femur and shaft immediately inferior
    • Psoas minor: Pectineal line and iliopectineal eminence of ilium
  12. What does the iliopsoas do?
    • Flexion of the hip; Flexion and external rotation of the femur
  13. Where does the pectoralis major originate?
    • Medial half of anterior surface of clavicle, anterior surface of costal cartilages of ribs 1–6 and adjacent sternum
  14. Where does the pectoralis major insert?
    • Greater tubercle of the humerus and intertubercular crest (lateral aspect of intertubercular groove)
  15. What does the pectoralis major do?
    • Adducts in frontal plane, flexes in sagittal plane, horizontally adducts in transverse plane, and internally rotates arm
  16. Where does the latissimus dorsi originate?
    • Posterior crest of ilium, spinous processes of T7–S3, ribs 10–12
  17. Where does the latissimus dorsi insert?
    • Medial side of intertubercular groove of humerus
  18. What does the latissimus dorsi do?
    • Adducts in frontal plane, extends in sagittal plane, horizontally abducts in transverse plane, and internally (medially) rotates arm
  19. Where does the deltoid originate?
    • 3 portions: anterior lateral 1/3 of clavicle, lateral aspect of acromion process, and inferior edge scapular spine
  20. Where does the deltoid insert?
    • Deltoid tuberosity of humerus (lateral)
  21. What does the deltoid do?
    • (1)Abducts arm, assists in flexion, horizontal abduction, and internal rotation of glenohumeral joint (GHJ); (2) abduction of GHJ; (3) abduction, extension, horizontal abduction,and lateral rotation of GHJ
  22. Where does the biceps brachii originate?
    • Long head: superior margin of glenoid fossa;
    • Short head: coracoid process of scapula
  23. Where does the biceps brachii insert?
    • Radial (bicipital) tuberosity of radius and bicipital aponeurosis
  24. What does the biceps brachii do?
    • Flexes elbow, weakly flexes glenohumeral joint; supinates hand
  25. Where does the triceps brachii originate?
    • Infraglenoid tubercle of scapula (1), lateral (2) and posterior (3) surfaces of the Humerus
  26. Where does the triceps brachii insert?
    • Olecranon process of ulna
  27. What does the triceps brachii do?
    • Extends elbow (1–3); adducts and extends glenohumeral joint (1)
  28. Where does the extensor digitorum originate?
    • Lateral epicondyle of humerus
  29. Where does the extensor digitorum insert?
    • 4 tendons to the dorsal surfaces of the base of middle and distal phalanges of fingers 2–5
  30. What does the extensor digitorum do?
    • Extends digits 2–5 at metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints and wrist; weak extension of elbow
  31. Where does the flexor digitorum superficialis originate?
    • Medial epicondyle of humerus; medial coronoid process of ulna; upper 2/3 of anterior border of radius
  32. Where does the flexor digitorum superficialis insert?
    • 4 tendons that divide and attach to the sides of middle phalanges of fingers 2–5
  33. What does the flexor digitorum superficialis do?
    • Flexes digits at MCP and PIP joints, flexes wrist; weak flexion of elbow
  34. Where does the gluteus maximus originate?
    • Posterior 1/4 of iliac crest; posterior surface of sacrum and coccyx near ilium; and lumbar fascia
  35. Where does the gluteus maximus insert?
    • Oblique ridge on lateral surface of greater trochanter and illiotibial band of fasci latae
  36. What does the gluteus maximus do?
    • Stabilizes trunk in hip extension; extension and external rotation of hip; lower fibers assist in hip adduction
  37. Where does the rectus femoris originate?
    • Anterior surface of anterior inferior iliac spine and superior & posterior margin of acetabulum
  38. Where does the rectus femoris insert?
    • Superior aspect of patella and patellar tendon to the tibial tuberosity
  39. What does the rectus femoris do?
    • Extension of the knee and flexion of the hip
  40. Where does the biceps femoris originate?
    • Long head: ischial tuberosity; Short head: lower half of linea aspera and lateral condylar ridge of femur
  41. Where does the biceps femoris insert?
    • Lateral condyle of tibia and head of fibular
  42. What does the biceps femoris do?
    • Flexion of knee, extension of hip, external rotation of hip and knee
  43. Where does the gastrocnemius originate?
    • Medial head: posterior surface of the medial femoral condyle; Lateral head: posterior surface of the lateral femoral condyle
  44. Where does the gastrocnemius insert?
    • Posterior surface of calcaneus via calcaneal (Achilles’) tendon
  45. What does the gastrocnemius do?
    • Plantar flexion of ankle; weak flexion of the knee
  46. Where does the tibialis anterior originate?
    • Upper 2/3 of the lateral surface of tibia
  47. Where does the tibialis anterior insert?
    • Inner surface of the medial cuneiform and the first metatarsal bone
  48. What does the tibialis anterior do?
    • Dorsiflexion of the ankle and inversion of the foot
  49. What is the origin of the supraspinatus?
    • Medial 2/3 of the supraspinous fossa of the scapula
  50. Where does the supraspinatus insert?
    • Superiorly on the greater tubercle of the humerus
  51. What does the supraspinatus do?
    • Stabilizes glenohumeral joint (GHJ), weak abduction of GJH
  52. What is the origin of the infraspinatus?
    • Medial aspect of infraspinous fossa of the scapula
  53. What is the insertion of the infraspinatus?
    • Posteriorly on the greater tubercle of the humerus
  54. What does the infraspinatus do?
    • Stabilizes GHJ, external rotation, horizontal abduction, and extension of the GHJ
  55. What is the origin of the teres minor?
    • Posteriorly on the upper and middle aspects of the lateral border of the scapula
  56. What is the insertion of the teres minor?
    • Posteriorly on the greater tubercle of the humerus
  57. WHat does the teres minor do?
    • Stabilizes GHJ, external rotation, horizontal abduction, and extension of GHJ
  58. What is the origin of the subscapularis?
    • Entire anterior surface of subscapular fossa
  59. What is the insertion of the subscapularis?
    • Lesser tubercle of the humerus
  60. What does the subscapularis do?
    • Stabilizes GHJ; internal rotation, adduction, and extension of the GHJ

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