Volume 3 Chapter 3

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amerelman
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Volume 3 Chapter 3
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2010-11-09 11:41:21
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Volume 3 Chapter 3
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  1. Central Nervous System (CNS)
    The brain and spinal cord
  2. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
    Part of nervous system that extends throughout the body. Includes cranial nerves and peripheral nerves. Contains somatic and autonomic nervous systems.
  3. Somatic Nervous System
    Part of nervous system controlling voluntary functions
  4. Autonomic Nervous System
    Part of nervous system controlling involuntary functions. Sympathetic and parasympathetic.
  5. Sympathetic Nervous System
    Division of the autonomic nervous system that prepares the body for stress. Increased HR, dilation of bronchioles and pupils. Epinepherine/Norepinephrine are its neurotransmitters.
  6. Parasympathetic Nervous System
    Division of autonomic nervous system that is responsible for controlling vegetative functions. Decreased HR, constriction of bronchioles and pupils. Acetylcholine
  7. Neuron
    Nerve Cell, fundamental component of the nervous system. Cell body (soma), Dendrites (transmit electrical impulses to soma), Axons (transmit electrical impulses away from soma)
  8. Neurotransmitter
    Substance released from the axon terminal of presynaptic neuron unpon excitation that travels across the synaptic cleft to either excite or inhibit the target cell.
  9. Meninges
    Membranes covering and protecting the brain and spinal cord. Consists of the pia mater, arachnoid membrane, dura mater.
  10. Dura mater
    Tought outermost layer of meninges.
  11. Arachnoid membrane
    Middle layer of meninges
  12. Pia mater
    Delicate innermost layer of meninges
  13. Bones of Skull
    Frontal bone, parietal bone, occipital bone. Temporal bone, sphenoid bone.
  14. Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
    Watery, clear fluid that acts as a cushion, protecting brain and spinal cord from physical impact. CSF also serves as an accessory circulatory system for the CNS.
  15. Cerebrum
    Largest part of the brain, consisting of two hemispheres. Seat of conciousness and the center of higher mental functions such as memory, learning, reasoning, judgment, intelligence and emotions.
  16. Diencephalon
    Portion of the brain lying beneath the cerebrum and above the brainstem. Contains thalmus (relays incoming information), hypothalmus (controls emotions, and hormones) and limbic system.
  17. Brainstem
    Part of brain connecting the cerebral hemispheres with the spinal cord. Consists of mesencephalon, pons and medulla oblongata.
  18. Mesencephalon
    Portion of brain connecting the pons and cerebellum with the cerebral hemispheres, also called midbrain. Controls motor coordination and eye movement.
  19. Pons
    Process of tissue connecting medulla oblangata and cerebellum with upper portions of brain.
  20. Medulla Oblangata
    Lower portion of brainstem connecting the pons and the spinal cord. Contains major centers for control of respiratory, cardiac and vasomotor activity.
  21. Cerebellum
    Portion of brain located dorsally to the pons and medulla. Plays important role in fine motor movement, posture, equilibrium and muscle tone.
  22. Reticular Activating System
    System responsible for conciousness. Series of nervous tissue keeping the human system in a state of conciousness.
  23. Afferent
    Carrying impulses toward the CNS. Sensory nerves are afferent.
  24. Efferent
    Carrying impulses away from CNS to periphery. Motor nerves are efferent.
  25. Dermatones
    Areas of the skin innervated by spinal nerves.
  26. Cranial Nerves
    • Twelve pairs of nerves that extend from the lower surface of brain.
    • 1. Olfactory, smell
    • 2. Optic, vision
    • 3. Occulomotor, ocular movement and pupils
    • 4. Trochlear, ocular movement
    • 5. Trigeminal, face sensitivity and chewing
    • 6. Abducens, ocular movement
    • 7. Facial, taste and facial expression
    • 8. Acoustic, hearing and equilibrium
    • 9. Glossopharyngeal, swallowing and taste
    • 10. Vagus, taste-swallowing-speech-involuntary muscles
    • 11. Spinal, swallowing/taste and head/shoulder movement
    • 12. Hypoglossal, tongue movement
  27. Peripheral Nervous System
    • Voluntary (Somatic)
    • Involuntary (Autonomic)-sympathetic and parasympathetic
  28. Coma
    State of unconciusness from which the patient cannot be aroused.
  29. Peripheral Neuropathy
    Any malfunction or damage of the peripheral nerves. Results may include weakness, loss of sensation and impaired relfexes.
  30. Cheyne-stokes Respirations
    Breathing pattern characterized by period of apnea lasting 10-60 seconds followed by gradually increasing then decreasing respirations.
  31. Kussmaul's Respirations
    Rapid, deep respirations caused by severe metabolic and CNS problems.
  32. Central Neurogenic Hyperventilation
    Caused by lesion in CNS, often deep, rapid, noisy respirations.
  33. Ataxic (Biot's) Respiration
    Poor respiration due to CNs damage causing throacic muscle incoordination.
  34. Apneustic Respiration
    Breathing characterized by a prolonged inspiration unrelieved by expiration attempts. Seen in patients with damage to the pons.
  35. Decorticate Posture
    Characteristic posture associated with a lesion at or above brainstem. The patient presents with arms flexed, fists clenched and legs extended.
  36. Decerebrate Posture
    Sustained contraction of extensor muscles in the extremities resulting from a lesion in the brainstem. Patient presents with stiff and extended extremities and retracted head.
  37. Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS)
    Tool used in evaluating and quantifying the degree of coma by determining the best motor, verbal and eye opening response to stimuli.
  38. Cushings Triad
    A collective change in vital signs associated with increasing ICP. Increased BP, Decreased HR, Irregular respirations.
  39. AMS Causes Acronym
    • A = Acidosis, alcohol
    • E = Epilepsy
    • I = Infection
    • O = Overdose
    • U = Uremia (kidney failure)
    • T = Trauma, tumor, toxin
    • I = Insulin (hyper/hypogycemia or DKA)
    • P = Psychosis, poison
    • S = Stroke, seizure
  40. Wernicke's Syndrome
    Condition characterized by loss of memory and disorientation associated with chronic alcohol intake and a diet deficient in thiamine.
  41. Korsakoff's Psychosis
    Psychosis characterized by disoritation, muttering, insomnia, delusions and hallucinations. Symptoms include painful extremities, bilateral wrist drop, bilateral foot drop, and pain on pressure along nerves.
  42. Stroke
    Caused by either ischemic or hemmorhagic lesions to a portion of the brain, resulting in tissue damage or destruction of brain tissue.
  43. Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA)
    Temporary interruption of blood supply to brain.
  44. Seizure
    Temporary alteration in behavior due to massive electrical discharge of one or more groups of neurons in the brain. Can be generalized or partial.
  45. Types of Seizure
    • Generalized (tonic-clonic, absence)
    • Partial (simple or complex)
  46. Generalized
    Seizures that begin as an electrical discharge in a small part of brain but spread to involve the entire cerebral cortex, causing widespread malfunction.
  47. Partial Seizures
    Seizures that remain confined to a limited portion of brain causing localized malfunction. Partial seizures may become generalized.
  48. Tonic-clonic Seizures
    Generalized seizure characterized by rapid loss of conciousness and motor coordination, muscle spasms, and jerking motions.
  49. Tonic Phase
    Phase of seizure characterized by tension of contraction of muscles.
  50. Clonic Phase
    Phase characterized by alternation of contracting and relaxing muscles
  51. Phases of Generalized Seizure
    • Aura
    • LOC
    • Tonic phase
    • Hypertonic phase
    • Clonic phase
    • Post seizure
    • Post-ictal
  52. Absence Seizure
    Generalized seizure with sudden onset of brief loss of awareness and rapid recovery.
  53. Simple Partial Seizure
    Involves local motor, sensory or autonomic dysfunction of one area of the body. There is NO LOC.
  54. Complex Partial Seizure
    Originating in the temporal love characterized by an aura and focal findings such as alterations in mental status and mood.
  55. Status Epilepticus
    Series of two or more generalized motor seizures without any intervening periods of conciousness.
  56. Syncope
    Transient loss of conciousness due to inadequate bloodflow to the brain with rapid recovery of conciousness upon becoming supine.
  57. Neoplasm
    "new form". New or abnormal formation, tumor.
  58. Degenerative Neurologic Disorders
    Collection of diseases that selectively affect one or more fucntional systems of the CNS.
  59. Alzheimer's
    Degenerative brain disorder. Most common cause of dementia in elderly.
  60. Muscular Dystrophy
    Group of genetic diseases characterized by progressive muscle weakness and degeneration of skeletal or voluntary muscle fibers.
  61. Multiple Sclerosis
    Disease that involves inflammtion of certain nerve cells followed by demylenation, or destruction of the myelin sheath, which insulates the nerve fibers.
  62. Dystonias
    Group of disorders characterized by muscle contractions that cause twisting and repetitive movements, abnormal postures or freezing in the middle of an action.
  63. Parkinson's disease
    Chronic progressive motor system disorder characterized by tremor, rigidity, bradykiesia and postural instability.
  64. Central Pain Syndrome
    Condition resulting from damage or injury to brain, brainstem or spinal cord characterized by intense, steady pain described as burning, aching, tingling.
  65. Bell's palsy
    On-sided facial paralysis with an unknown cause characterized by the inability to close the eye, pain, tearing of eyes, drooling, hypersensitivity to sound and impairment of taste.
  66. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)
    Progressive degeneration of specific nerve cells that control voluntary movement characterized by weakness, loss of control, difficulty speaking and cramping. AKA Lou Gehrig's Disease
  67. Myoclonus
    Temporary, involuntary twitching or spasm of a muscle or group of muscles
  68. Spina Bifida (SB)
    A neural defect that results from the failure of one or more of the fetal vertebrae to close properly in the first month of pregnancy
  69. Poliomyelitis (polio)
    Infection, inflammatory viral disease of the CNS sometimes resulting in permanent paralysis

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