11. Spinal, swallowing/taste and head/shoulder movement
12. Hypoglossal, tongue movement
Peripheral Nervous System
Involuntary (Autonomic)-sympathetic and parasympathetic
State of unconciusness from which the patient cannot be aroused.
Any malfunction or damage of the peripheral nerves. Results may include weakness, loss of sensation and impaired relfexes.
Breathing pattern characterized by period of apnea lasting 10-60 seconds followed by gradually increasing then decreasing respirations.
Rapid, deep respirations caused by severe metabolic and CNS problems.
Central Neurogenic Hyperventilation
Caused by lesion in CNS, often deep, rapid, noisy respirations.
Ataxic (Biot's) Respiration
Poor respiration due to CNs damage causing throacic muscle incoordination.
Breathing characterized by a prolonged inspiration unrelieved by expiration attempts. Seen in patients with damage to the pons.
Characteristic posture associated with a lesion at or above brainstem. The patient presents with arms flexed, fists clenched and legs extended.
Sustained contraction of extensor muscles in the extremities resulting from a lesion in the brainstem. Patient presents with stiff and extended extremities and retracted head.
Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS)
Tool used in evaluating and quantifying the degree of coma by determining the best motor, verbal and eye opening response to stimuli.
A collective change in vital signs associated with increasing ICP. Increased BP, Decreased HR, Irregular respirations.
AMS Causes Acronym
A = Acidosis, alcohol
E = Epilepsy
I = Infection
O = Overdose
U = Uremia (kidney failure)
T = Trauma, tumor, toxin
I = Insulin (hyper/hypogycemia or DKA)
P = Psychosis, poison
S = Stroke, seizure
Condition characterized by loss of memory and disorientation associated with chronic alcohol intake and a diet deficient in thiamine.
Psychosis characterized by disoritation, muttering, insomnia, delusions and hallucinations. Symptoms include painful extremities, bilateral wrist drop, bilateral foot drop, and pain on pressure along nerves.
Caused by either ischemic or hemmorhagic lesions to a portion of the brain, resulting in tissue damage or destruction of brain tissue.
Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA)
Temporary interruption of blood supply to brain.
Temporary alteration in behavior due to massive electrical discharge of one or more groups of neurons in the brain. Can be generalized or partial.
Types of Seizure
Generalized (tonic-clonic, absence)
Partial (simple or complex)
Seizures that begin as an electrical discharge in a small part of brain but spread to involve the entire cerebral cortex, causing widespread malfunction.
Seizures that remain confined to a limited portion of brain causing localized malfunction. Partial seizures may become generalized.
Generalized seizure characterized by rapid loss of conciousness and motor coordination, muscle spasms, and jerking motions.
Phase of seizure characterized by tension of contraction of muscles.
Phase characterized by alternation of contracting and relaxing muscles
Phases of Generalized Seizure
Generalized seizure with sudden onset of brief loss of awareness and rapid recovery.
Simple Partial Seizure
Involves local motor, sensory or autonomic dysfunction of one area of the body. There is NO LOC.
Complex Partial Seizure
Originating in the temporal love characterized by an aura and focal findings such as alterations in mental status and mood.
Series of two or more generalized motor seizures without any intervening periods of conciousness.
Transient loss of conciousness due to inadequate bloodflow to the brain with rapid recovery of conciousness upon becoming supine.
"new form". New or abnormal formation, tumor.
Degenerative Neurologic Disorders
Collection of diseases that selectively affect one or more fucntional systems of the CNS.
Degenerative brain disorder. Most common cause of dementia in elderly.
Group of genetic diseases characterized by progressive muscle weakness and degeneration of skeletal or voluntary muscle fibers.
Disease that involves inflammtion of certain nerve cells followed by demylenation, or destruction of the myelin sheath, which insulates the nerve fibers.
Group of disorders characterized by muscle contractions that cause twisting and repetitive movements, abnormal postures or freezing in the middle of an action.
Chronic progressive motor system disorder characterized by tremor, rigidity, bradykiesia and postural instability.
Central Pain Syndrome
Condition resulting from damage or injury to brain, brainstem or spinal cord characterized by intense, steady pain described as burning, aching, tingling.
On-sided facial paralysis with an unknown cause characterized by the inability to close the eye, pain, tearing of eyes, drooling, hypersensitivity to sound and impairment of taste.
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)
Progressive degeneration of specific nerve cells that control voluntary movement characterized by weakness, loss of control, difficulty speaking and cramping. AKA Lou Gehrig's Disease
Temporary, involuntary twitching or spasm of a muscle or group of muscles
Spina Bifida (SB)
A neural defect that results from the failure of one or more of the fetal vertebrae to close properly in the first month of pregnancy
Infection, inflammatory viral disease of the CNS sometimes resulting in permanent paralysis