MedT Ch. 11

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MedT Ch. 11
2010-11-03 15:08:50
Word Parts Definitions Exam

HLHS 101: Ch. 11 Cardiovascular System
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  1. largest artery in the body
  2. small artery
  3. largest type of blood vessel; carries blood away from the heart to all parts of the body ("a"-"away")
  4. specialized muscle fibers connecting the atria with the ventricles and transmitting electrical impulses between them
    atrioventricular bundle (bundle of His)
  5. specialized tissue in the wall between the atria
    atrioventricular node (AV node)
  6. one of two upper chambers of the heart
    atrium (pl: atria)
  7. smallest blood vessel
  8. gas (waste) released by body cells, transported via veins to the heart, and then to the lungs for exhalation
    carbon dioxide (CO2)
  9. blood vessels that branch from the aorta and carry oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle
    coronary arteries
  10. blood that is oxygen-poor
    deoxygenated blood
  11. relaxation phase of the heartbeat
  12. record of the electricitowing through the heart; represented by waves or deflections called P, QRS, or T
  13. inner lining of the heart
  14. innermost lining of blood vessels
  15. valve between the left atrium and the left ventricle; bicuspid valve
    mitral valve
  16. abnormal swishing sound caused by improper closure of the heart valves
  17. muscular, middle later of the heart
  18. heart rhythm originating in the sinoatrial node with a resting rate of 60 to 100 beats per minute
    normal sinus rhythm
  19. gas that enters the blood through the lungs and travels to the heart to be pumped via arteries to all body cells
  20. specialized nervous tissue in the right atrium that begins the heartbeat
    pacemaker (sinoatrial node)
  21. double-layered membrane surrounding the heart
  22. artery carrying oxygen-poor blood from the heart to the lungs
    pulmonary artery
  23. flow of blood from the heart to the lungs and back to the heart
    pulmonary circulation
  24. valve positioned between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery
    pulmonary valve
  25. one of two pairs of vessels carrying oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart
    pulmonary vein
  26. beat of the heart as felt through the walls of the arteries
  27. partition or wall dividing a cavity; such as between the right and left atria and right and left ventricles
    septum (pl: septa)
  28. pacemaker of the heart
    sinoatrial node (SA node)
  29. instrument to measure blood pressure
  30. flow of blood from body tissue to the heart and then from teh eheart back to body tissues
    systemic circulation
  31. contraction phase of the heartbeat
  32. located between the right atrium and right ventricle; it has three leaflets, or cusps
    tricuspid valve
  33. structure in veins or in the heart that temporarily closes an opening so that blood flows in only one direction
  34. thin-walled vessel that carries blood from body tissues and lungs back to the heart
  35. largest vein in the body
    vena cava (pl: venae cavae)
  36. one of two lower chamber of the heart
  37. small vein
  38. angi/o
  39. aort/o
  40. arter/o, arteri/o
  41. ather/o
    yellowish plaque, fatty substance
  42. atri/o
  43. brachi/o
  44. cardi/o
  45. cholesterol/o
  46. coron/o
  47. cyan/o
  48. myx/o
  49. ox/o
  50. pericardi/o
  51. phleb/o
  52. rrhythm/o
  53. sphygm/o
  54. steth/o
  55. thromb/o
  56. valvul/o, valv/o
  57. vas/o
  58. vacsul/o
  59. ven/o, ven/i
  60. ventricul/o
  61. abnormal heart rhythms (dysrhythmias)
  62. failure of proper conduction of impulses from the SA node through the AV node to the atrioventricular bundle (bundle of His)
    bradycardia and heart block (atrioventricular block)
  63. rapid but regular contractions, usually of the atria
  64. very rapid, random, inefficient, and irregular contractions of the heart (350+ bpm)
  65. abnormalities in the heart at birth
    congenital heart disease
  66. CHD: narrowing (coarctation) of the aorta
    coarctation of the aorta (CoA)
  67. CHD: passageway (ductus arteriosus) between the aorta and the pulmonary artery remains open (patent) after birth
    patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)
  68. small holes in the wall between the atria (atrial septal defects) or the ventricles (ventricular septal defects)
    septal defects
  69. CHD: congenital malformation involving four distinct heart defects
    tetralogy of Fallot
  70. 4 defects of tetralogy of Fallot
    • pulmonary atery stenosis
    • ventricular septal defect
    • shift of the aorta to the right
    • hypertrophy of the right ventricle
  71. heart is unable to pump its required amout of blood
    congestive heart failure (CHF)
  72. disease of the arteries surrounding the heart
    coronary artery disease (CAD)
  73. inflammation of the inner lining of the heart
  74. high blood pressure affecting the heart
    hypertensive heart disease
  75. improper closure of the mitral valve
    mitral valve prolapse (MVP)
  76. extra heart sound, heard between normal beats
  77. inflammation of the membrane (pericardium) surrounding the heart
  78. heart disease caused by rheumatic fever
    rheumatic heart disease
  79. local widening (dilation) of an arterial wall
  80. blood clot (thrombus) forms in a large vein, usually in a lower limb
    deep vein thrombosis (DVT)
  81. high blood pressure
    hypertension (HTN)
  82. blockage of arteries carrying blood to the legs, arms, kidneys, and other organs
    peripheral arterial disease (PAD)
  83. recurrent episodes of pallor and cyanosis primarily in fingers and toes
    Raynaud disease
  84. abnormally swollen and twisted veins, usually occurring in the legs
    varicose veins
  85. unstable angina and myocardial infarction (heart attack), which are consequences of plaque rupture in coronary arteries
    acute coronary syndromes (ACSs)
  86. chest pain reulting from myocardial ischemia
    angina (pectoris)
  87. antihypertensive drug that blocks the conversion of angiotensis I to angiotensis II causing blood vessels to dilate; prevents heart attacks, CHF, stroke, and death
    angiotensis-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor
  88. listening for sounds in blood vessels or other body structures, typically using a stethoscope
  89. drug used to treat angina, hypertension, and arrhythmias; block the action of epinephrine (adrenaline) at receptor sites on cells, slowing the heartbeat and reducing the workload on the heart
  90. device enabling ventricles to beat together (in synchrony) so that more blood is pumped out of the heart
    biventricular pacemaker
  91. abnormal blowing or swishing sound heard during auscultation of an artery or organ
  92. drug used to treat angina and hypertension; dilates blood vessels by blocking the influx of calcium into muscle cells lining vessels
    clacium channel blocker
  93. sudden, unexpected stoppage of heart action; sudden cardiac death
    cardiac arrest
  94. pressure of the heart caused by fluid in the pericardial space
    cardiac tamponade
  95. pain, tension, and weakness in a leg after walking has begun, but absence of pain at rest
  96. drug that treats arrhythmias and strengthens the heartbeat
  97. clot of other substance that travels to a distant location and suddenly blocks a blood vessel
    embolus (pl: emboli)
  98. area of dead tissue
  99. drugs used in the treatment of angina; dilate blood vessels, increasing blood flow and oxygen to myocardial tissue
  100. nitrate drug used in the treatment of angina
  101. closure of a blood vessel due to blockage
  102. uncomfortable sensations in the chest related to cardiac arrhythmias, such as premature ventricular contrations (PVCs)
  103. open
  104. scraping or grating noise heard on auscultation of the heart
    pericardial friction rub
  105. small, pinpoint hemorrhages
  106. drugs used to lower cholesterol in the bloodstream
  107. vibration felt over an area of turmoil in blood flow (as a blocked artery)
  108. clumps of platelets, clotting proteins, microorganisms, and red blood cells on diseased heart valves
  109. measurement of BNP (brain natriuretic peptide) in blood
    BNP test
  110. chemicals are measured in the blood as evidence of a heart attack
    cardiac biomarkers
  111. measurement of cholesterol and triglycerides (fats) in a blood sample
    lipid tests (lipid profile)
  112. lipoproteins (combinations of fat and protein) are physically separated and measured in a blood sample
    lipoprotein electrophoresis
  113. x-ray imaging of blood vessels after injection of contrast material
  114. 3D x-ray images of the heart and coronary arteries using a CT (64-slice CT scanner)
    computed tomography angiography (CTA)
  115. video equipment and a computer produce x-ray images of blood vessels
    digital subtraction angiography (DSA)
  116. electron beams and CT identify calcium deposits in and around coronary arteries to diagnose early CAD
    electron beam computed tomography (EBCT or EBT)
  117. sound waves measure blood flow within blood vessels
    Doppler ultrasound studies
  118. echoes generated by high-frequency sound waves produce images of the heart
    echocardiography (ECHO)
  119. images show blood flow and myocardial function following uptake of radioactive glucose
    positron emission tomorgraphy (PET) scan
  120. technetium Tc 99m sestamibi injected intravenously is taken up in cardiac tissue, where it is detected by scanning
    technetium Tc 99m sestamibi scan
  121. concentration of radioactive thallium is measured to give information about blood supply to the heart muscle
    thallium 201 scan
  122. images of the heart are produced using radiowave energy in a magnetic field
    cardiac MRI
  123. thin, flexible tube is guided into the heart via a vein or an artery
    cardiac catheterization
  124. recording of electricity flowing through the heart
    electrocardiography (ECG)
  125. an ECG device is worn during a 24-hour period to detect cardiac arrhythmias
    Holter monitoring
  126. exercise tolerance test (ETT) determines the heart's response to physical exertion (stress)
    stress test
  127. brief delivery of radiofrequency or cryosurgery to destroy areas of heart tissue that may be causing arrhythmias
    catheter ablation
  128. arteries and veins are anastomosed to coronary arteries to detour around blockages
    coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG)
  129. brief discharges of electricity are applied across the chest to stop dysrhythmias (ventricular fibrillation)
  130. surgical removal of plaque from the inner layer of an artery
  131. heart-lung machine diverts blood from the heart and lungs while the heart is repaired
    extracorporeal circulation
  132. a donor heart is transferred to a recipient
    heart transplantation
  133. balloon-tipped catheter is inserted into a coronary artery to open the artery; stents are put in place
    percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)
  134. drugs to dissolve clots are injected into the bloodstream of patients with coronary thrombosis
    thrombolytic therapy