What were the differences between Etruscan temples and Greek temples?
-Etruscan temples are raised on a podium with only one staircase. Etruscan temples have a front side while Greek temples had stairs on all sides.
-Contain three cellas
-Statues on the roof
What is the name of this statue?
Apulu of Veii
The Apulu of Veii is the Etruscan version of what? What is this made out of? Where was this found? What does it resemble?
-Made out of terracotta (clay)
-was part of the statuary on the roof of a temple
-resembles Archaic Greek kouros
What is the name of this? What is its medium? What is the purpose of this? What could be inferred by this?
Sarcophagus of Reclining Couple;
made out of terracotta (clay)
This was a container for their remains
Woman reclining with a man might indicate that Etruscan women enjoyed higher social status than that of Greek women
What is the name of this? When was it made?
Temple of Portunus, from 75 BCE
Temple of Portunus: What eras of art are combined for this? Temple of Portunus is a ____-_____ temple. the ____columns on the side are meant to make the temple look like a _____ temple, with columns all around
Combines Etruscan and Greek art.
pseudo-peripteral temple, meaning that the ENGAGED columns on the side are meant to look like a PERIPTERAL temple
what is the name of this?
temple of Vesta in Tivoli, Italy
Temple of Vesta in Tivoli, Italy: Which goddess was this dedicated to? What plan does it have? What does it closely resemble?
Vesta, the goddess of the hearth
has a centralized plan
resembles a tholos
what are these? when were they made?
Republican portrait busts
made in 509-27 BCE
Republican Portrait Busts: who made these and why? where were these displayed? The busts have ____ qualities, they display ___
the patrician families kept deceased portrait busts as a record of their ancestry
displayed during funeral processions
the busts have VERISTIC qualities
they display GRAVITAS
what is the definition of Veristic?
very realistic, even showing imperfections
what is the definition of gravitas?
a stern and serious facial expression to show that Romans were dutiful people
what is the name of this? who is being depicted and of what?
Augustus is being depicted as a victorious general
Augustus Primaporta: what is his form? who could he be closely based on? how is Augustus being portrayed and why?
contrapposto; based on Polykleitos' Doryphoros;
being portrayed eternally youthful and powerful, inteded to mold public opinion.
served as his official portrait around the empire
what is the name of this? who was it dedicated to and why?
dedicated to Caesar Augustus giving him credit for the Pax Romana
how is the Ara Pacis's art shown? what does the art express?
divided into registers
relief sculpture that expresses the social and political agenda of Augustus;
Where was this found? What does it portray?
shows Aeneas offering a sacrifice which refers to Augustus' divine lineage
where was this found? What does it show?
shows an image of Tellus with putti and animals. Symbolizes peace and prosperity in the Roman world
where was this found? what does it show?
shows an imperial procession scene which encourages men and women to start families
Who was Pitruvius? When was his work discovered?
A Roman architect during the Augustan age whose work was rediscovered during the Renaissance period (1400's)
what is the name of this?
Pont du Gard: What was its purpose? What does it connect? What is the name of each arch made out of interlocking stones?
Carried water to the town of nimes in France from a mountain source 82 miles away;
What were the Roman towns that were buried by an eruption? What Mountain erupted and what year/century?
Pompeii and Herculaneum; Mount Vesuvius erupted in 79 CE= the First century
What structures were found in Pompeii?
an ampitheatre, forum, and many homes
What did typical homes have and what did they serve as?
An atrium: served as a welcoming hall for guests
Describe the architecture of the homes found in Pompeii?
an atrium which contained an opening in the ceilling and a pool for collecting water below, called an impluvium.
on the sides of the atrium, were cuicula (bedrooms)
the end of the atrium led to a peristyle courtyard which often had a garden in the center.
What is the name of this? What is its significance?
Peaches and Glass of Water;
First still-life painting ever
Still-life of Peaches and Glass of Water: what is the form of art in it? Where was it found? Key aspects in this art.
Fourth style fresco found from a home in Herculaneum.
Has great interest in realism, based off careful observation of a scene, includes shadows and light to make the scene look realistic.
Where was this found/what was its name? What style of art is found in here?
Cubliculum from Home of Publius Fannius Synistor;
Found in a home in Pompeii after Vesuvius erupted;
Contains second-style painting
What is second-style paintings?
depicts architectural scenes with a sense of depth and attempted perspective; 3D
What is the name of this? What was its original name? Who built it and when was it built?
The Colosseum, built by Emperor Vespian in the late 1st century CE
originally called the Flavian Ampitheatre
Colosseum: What was it used for? what does the exterior decoration include? What do the passageways utilize?
It was used for public spectaclles;
exterior decoration includes arches and engaged columns
passageways utilize barrel and groin vaults
What was this called? What does this commemorate?
Arch of Titus;
Commemorates Titus' conquest of Jerusalem in 70 CE
What is this found on? What does this show?
it shows Roman soldiers taking the treasures of the Temple of Jerusalem; found on the Arch of Titus
What is this an example of??
What were the Faiyum Portaits? What were they made out of? What was their purpose? What are they renowned for?
portraits of Roman citizens discovered in Faiyum, Egypt
painted in encaustic (painting with melted wax) onto wooden panels
fasted over the head of a mummy case
renowned for their naturalism such as the modeling of the human face with shadow and light
What is this showing? Who designed it, what did it include?
designed by Apollodorus of Damascus
Included a basilica, Temple of Trajan, marketplace, and Trajan's column
What is the name of this? What is it? What is it depicting? What does it function as?
it is a 625 ft. frieze
Depicts Trajan's military campaigns against the Dacians
Base of the column functions as Trajan's tomb- holds his and his wife's ashes
What is this called? Who built it and when?
Built by Hadrian in the 2nd century
Pantheon: What is it dedicated to? what does its architecture include? How was it constructed?
Dedicated to several Roman dieties, includes a portico, a rotunda (dome and drum).
The interior of dome contains coffers (recessed panels)
The Dome contains an oculus (opening in the dome for light)
Constructed of several mixtures of concrete from the foundation to the top of the dome
Dome is supported by eight large concrete piers that are a part of the
where is this found and what is it showing?
Found in the pantheon, shows the recessed panels in the dome
Who is this showing?
Marcus Auriulus: What is it made out of? Why was it not destroyed? What happened to it during the Renaissance?
Bronze; The people believed it was a statue of Constantine
During the Renaissance era, it was placed as the centerpiece of a civic
What are these? What is it and how was it constructed?
The Baths of Caracalla; Built in the last empire
Largest baths in Rome;
Used fenestrated groin vaults
(groin vaults that have openings on the side for windows) to provide
light for the interior
What are these called? When was it made? what does it depict?
The Portrait of Four Tetrarchs;
Made during the Late Empire during the time of Diocletian;
Depicts four rulers who share power
Portrays the emperors as anonymous and equal leaders
what is this showing?
The Palace of Diocletian at Split
The Palace of Diocletian at Split: Who built this? Describe the unusual feature of the palace.
Diocletian, founder of the tetrarchy, retired and built a fortress-home.
Part of the palace included a temple area which had round arches
supported by columns rather than block piers – an unusual and
What is this called? Where was it found?
The Collossal Head of Constantine
Part of a colossal statue of Constantine in the main hall of the Basilica
Nova (A basilica was a large rectangular building which had
courtrooms and government offices) as a reminder of Constantine’s
Colosal Head of Constantine: What is being portrayed? How do historians believe he looked like?
Portrays Constantine as eternally youthful
Powerful image of authority for the Roman Empire
It is believed that with one hand he held a scepter and in the other he
held an orb representing his power over the world (a cross may have
surmounted the orb)
What is this an example of? What was its purpose?
A stele is an upright stone marker that is a record of an important
What is this called? What does it show?
The Palette of Narmer;
recorded the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt through