Neurophysiology - Lecture 16 & 17

Card Set Information

Author:
bcb2127
ID:
47138
Filename:
Neurophysiology - Lecture 16 & 17
Updated:
2010-11-04 17:31:57
Tags:
Neurophysiology Vision
Folders:

Description:
Vision
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user bcb2127 on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. The distance between two crests or troughs (peak to peak measurement)
    Wavelength
  2. Filled with a jelly like fluid, refracts light onto the retina
    Cornea
  3. Where the optic nerve leaves the eye, causes a blind spot
    Optic Disk
  4. Where accomodation occurs
    Lens
  5. Center of the retina, focused vision, where light falls when looking straight ahead
    Macula
  6. Located at the center of the macula, dense # of photoreceptors
    Fovea
  7. A fat lens is a result of ciliary muscles ______ and is used to see _____________.
    • relaxing
    • close objects
  8. A flat lens results when ciliary muscles _______ and is used for seeing ___________.
    • contract
    • far objects
  9. As aging occurs the lens _______, so it is harder for the lens to go _______, which impairs _________ vision.
    • stiffens
    • fat
    • near vision
  10. Nearsightedness, also known as ________, is corrected by a ________ lens to reduce refractive power
    • Myopia
    • negative
  11. __________, or farsightedness, is corrected by a ______ lens to add refractive power.
    • Hyperopia
    • positive
  12. This condition is corrected by an asymmetric lens to compensate for the asymmetry of the eye's lens.
    Astigmatism
  13. Increased fluid pressure in the eye causing optic nerve damage and eventually death resulting in blindness
    Glaucoma
  14. The cones degenerate, central vision is lost, but peripheral vision remains due to the rods.
    Macular degeneration
  15. Clouding of the lens and the lens must be surgically removed and replaced with a plastic one.
    Cataracts
  16. 3 layers of the Retina
    • 1. Ganglion Cells
    • 2. Bipolar Cells
    • 3. Photoreceptors
  17. Ganglion Cells contain
    Amacrine cells
  18. Bipolar Cells contain
    Horizontal cells
  19. Peripheral vision, sensitive to light, high convergence and motion detection
    Rods
  20. Central vision, sensitive to color, low convergence and fine discrimination
    Cones
  21. Cones are more concentrated at the _____________
    fovea
  22. Rods are concentrated more heavily ______________ the fovea
    outside
  23. Rods and cones constantly regenerate this protein, because one it changes, it falls off of the receptor
    opsin
  24. 3 types of cones
    • Red
    • Green
    • Blue
  25. After about __ minutes in the dark, the rods are more sensitive than the cones
    10
  26. On-center and off-center receptive fields ________ boundaries between light and dark.
    enhance
  27. Ganglion cells responsible for fine detail. Have small receptive fields, sustained APs and color opponent cells
    P-type
  28. Ganglion cells than are responsible for movement. Have large receptive fields, are sensitive to low contrast and have fast AP.
    M-type
  29. Red/green type color opponent ganglion cells are ______ while blue/yellow are ________.
    • P-type
    • NonM-nonP
  30. Why do we have parallel processing in the visual system?
    Processing each bit of info sequentially would take too long and would be unreliable. Parallel processing is much faster.
  31. mixed info from both visual fields
    optic nerve
  32. nasal visual fields cross over at the
    optic chiasm
  33. same information from one visual field travels along the
    optic tract
  34. Why do we have binocular vision and what does it allow for?
    Because the visual fields from both eyes overlap, creating depth perception in the center.
  35. Can use two images taken from slightly different angles and present them next to each other, producing depth perception in once focused image
    stereoposis
  36. 2 pictures taken from slightly different angles and overlayed. One image is presented to each eye through color filtering glasses, which allows depth perception in a flat field.
    3d stereoposis
  37. Responsible for pupillary light reflex and moves head to orient to a visual image.
    Superior Colliculus
  38. __________ layers take info from P-type while ____________ layers take info from m-type
    • Parvocellular
    • Magnocellular
  39. Lateral Geniculate Nucleus organization (dorsal to ventral)
    P, K, P, K, P, K, P, K, M, K, M, K
  40. The major input to the LGN is the _________ cortex and the rest of the brain.
    visual
  41. Project from layer 1 & 2 of LGN to layer IVCalpha
    Magnocellular
  42. Project from layers 3-6 of LGN to layer IVCbeta
    Parvocellular
  43. ______ visual cortex cells respond strongly to a given orientation.
    Simple
  44. _______ visual cortex cells respond strongly to movement in a direction
    Complex
  45. 5 things the primary visual cortex is responsible for.
    • A complete map of the outside world in the brain
    • Focuses on the middle of vision
    • Focuses on contrast
    • Tuned to straight lines in the environment
    • Highly sensitive to motion and color
  46. In the extrastriate cortex, the _______ is the 'where' pathway, so motion is analyzed.
    ________ is the 'what' pathway, detail and color are analyzed.
    • Dorsal (moves to posterior parietal)
    • Ventral (moves to inferior temporal cortex)
  47. Damage to V4, loss of color vision (only see black and white), subjects describe the world as depressing and food as unappetizing and hard to taste.
    Achromatopsia
  48. The eyes use the amount of light on the retina to help judge if an area is ________. All other colors are then compared to this baseline _______ color.
    white
  49. Inability to identify common items, but may be able to copy drawing of items and draw items from memory
    Visual Agnosia
  50. Inability to recognize faces, including close family and themselves. Damage to IT and the Fusiform Face Area.
    Prosopagnosia
  51. Damage to area MT of the brain; loss of ability to perceive motion, though perception of objects is intact
    Motion Agnosia
  52. Perception of movement when none exists
    Induced Motion
  53. Perception of motion in a stationary stimulus after viewing a moving stimulus. Occurs in area MT
    Motion Aftereffect (or Waterfall Illusion)
  54. Biological motion is the perception of motion related to living things. This involves the ________ __________ Sulcus
    Superior Temporal
  55. When shown a still that suggests motion, people remember the motion as being ______ along than it actually is. This activates brain areas ___ and ____
    • further
    • MT and MST
  56. Apparent and real motion occur in _____ & _______ (areas of visual cortex)
    VI and MT

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview