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DNA preserved in ancient remains such as archaeological bones, plant remains, mummified tissues, and fossils
- large and complex molecules with specific biological functions
inheritance patterns of DNA types
- y-DNA: paternal
- m-DNA: maternal
- chromsomal: mixed
Stats on human nuclear DNA
3 billion BP which code for 80,000 different proteins
What was the first successful aDNA experiment?
1984 The first DNA was extracted, cloned and sequenced
from the dried muscle of a quagga
By whom and when was the PCR amplification process invented?
Karry Mullis 1985
How many chromosomes does each human have?
What is the basic unit of DNA structure, and what is it composed of?
Nucleotide: made of sugar, phosphate, and base
What direction does DNA extend?
- 5'--> 3'
- new base pairs can only attach to sugar end, not phosphate end of base
What are the nucleotides, and who do they pair with?
A-T and C-G
How many hydrogen bonds bind ATand CG (respectively)?
- Two hydrogen bonds bind A and T
- Three hydrogen bonds bind C and G
What is stronger? Sugar-Phosphate links or Base-Base links?
What is TM?
- TM= temperature of melting and is defined as the temperature at which 50% of DNA molecules are single stranded.
- The longer the sequence fragment, the greater the TM.
- The more G-C base pairs within the fragment, the greater the TM.
What is the central dogma?
DNA - RNA - Protein
What is a codon, and what does it code for?
A codon is three base-pairs of DNA and it codes for an amino acid. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins.
Why does DNA need to replicate itself?
Growth and maintenance of body and reproduction.
What is a polymerase?
A DNA polymerase is an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of a DNA strand. Polymerase reads an intact DNA strand as template and uses it to synthesize a new strand. It is magnesium.
what is dNTP?
The raw materials for the DNA sequence that is formed during PCR amplification.
What is the percentage of coding DNA sequences in humans?
How big are mitochondrial genomes compared to chloroplast?
- Animal mitochondrial genomes are 16kb.
- Chloroplast genomes are 120-200kb
What are the differences between mtDNA and nuclear DNA?
- nuclear DNA is linear, while mtDNA is circular.
- Nuclear DNA has two copies per cell, while mtDNA has a thousand.
- Nuclear DNA has mendelian inheritance, recombination, and a high mutation rate.
- mtDNA has maternal inheritance, no recombination, and a higher mutation rate.