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2010-11-03 19:56:52

History and Systems of Psychology
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  1. Population grows at an exponential rate; resources grow at a linear rate; therefore it comes a time when the population outgrows the food supply resulting in competition for limited resources
    • Thomas Malthus/Evolutionary/
    • The Principle of Population Overgrowth
  2. States that traits that aid in the survival of an organism are more likely to be passed on to future generations
    Theory of Natural Selection-Charles Darwin
  3. Level of fit between an organism and the environment
    Fitness-Charles Darwin
  4. Influenced by Lamarck's teological theory, which proposes that evolution has purpose or goal--perfection. Every species is evolving towards perfection. This assumes that there is a perfect form of every species, including humans
    Spencer-Bain Principle
  5. The concept of association is the foundation of all learning. We learn by forming associations between ideas.
    Evolutionary Associationism-Herbert Spencer
  6. Became known as social darwinism
    Spencer-bain principle
  7. Spencer said that some people are better fit to survive than others
    Survival of the Fittest
  8. Initially argued successful people tend to be related to other successful people. and intelligence was probably necessary to achieve this level of success.
    Sir Francis Galton
  9. Found that identical twins were similar to each other intellectually, proving that there was a trace of heritability of intelligence
    Sir Francis Galton
  10. Set up the first anthropometric labratory to study individual's features and appearance as it related to intelligence
    Sir Francis Galton
  11. Stated that society is moving towards a perfect state. (utopia) Individuals who are unfit for society are in fact dragging society down, and hindering the betterment of human civilization by passing on their unfit genes onto their children
  12. Felt that large, poor, working-class families were reversing the "natural law" so he openly opposed social programs to help them survive
  13. Criticized Henry Goddard's approach to immigration testing policy, saying that it was a self-fulfilling prophecy: they have never held a pencil or pen, they cannot speak the language, and their failure may have been a result of testing conditions
    Stephen Jay Gould
  14. The idea that it is possible to create a race of superior humans over a sufficient span of generations involving controlled, selective breeding (such as used by Nazi's)
  15. First american to earn a PhD with Wundt
    James Cattell/ Psychometric/ Intelligence Testing
  16. Set up the oldest continually operating psychology department at the university of Pennsylvania in 1887
    James Cattell
  17. Worried about the validity of intelligence testing, and said that if a series of tests were valid measures of the same thing, they must be intercorrelated
    James Cattell
  18. Found that Galton's tests were not correlated with one-another, and thus, not valid--intelligence may not be inheritable
    James Cattell
  19. Used to test a wide range of cognitive abilities
    Binet-Simon Scale Of Intelligence
  20. Mental exercises that could strengthen the mind and increase intelligence
    Mental Orthopedics---Binet and Simon
  21. The results of intelligence tests were determined in terms of one's ______ _______.
    Mental Age--Binet and Simon
  22. IQ=(mentalage/actualage)*100
    William Stern/ IQ testing/ Intelligence Quotient
  23. Developed factor analysis to break down the intercorrelations between items on an intelligence test, allowing statiticians to break down the intercorrelations among the items and determine how many factors are being measured in a given test
    Charles Spearman--Two factor theory of Intelligence
  24. Found that there are 2 factors in IQ tests
    Charles Spearman
  25. Represents a person's overall intelligence, tending to be stable over the lifetime
    General Factor--two factor theory---Spearman
  26. Corresponds to specific abilities that can be improved with training, showing not all intelligence is genetically determined
    Doman-Specific Ability Factor-2 factor theory-Spearman
  27. Believed at there is a correlation between physical appearance and intelligence (physiognomy) He used Binet-Simon Scale at Ellis Island to test immigrants because there was a belief that a large number of them were mentally deficient. This resulted in a large number of individuals who were deported. Equated mental deficiency with criminal deviancy
    Henry Herber Goddard/ Eugenic and Physiognomy/ Study of the Hereditary of Feeble Mindedness
  28. Published a book on the Kallikaks
    Henry Herber Goddard
  29. Claimed that poor results on the test may have been nothing more than a self-fulfilling prophecy--not actually a result of them being stupid
    Stephen Jay Gould
  30. May be considered the first American Psychologist, and set up a psychology lab four years before Wundt
    William James
  31. Wrote the Principles of Psychology, which was the first psychology textbook
    William James
  32. Treated the idea of habit as being a learned modification of instinctual behavior. Neural connections become stronger through conditioning/repetition
    William James
  33. A philosophy that holds that ideas can be judged or weighed by the extent to which they are practical
  34. James' 5 facts of Consciousness
    • 1. Consciousness is personal, not universal. Rejection of structuralism
    • 2. Content of experience is always changing. One can never have the same experience twice
    • 3. continuous-- cannot be divided
    • a. stream of consciousness:
    • 4. functional
    • 5. Selective
  35. First American to receive PhD in psychology
    Granville Stanley Hall-The great organizer
  36. Played a key role in the creation of the APA: 1st president of the APA
    Granville Stanley Hall
  37. Founded the American Journal of Psychology; which was the first English Psych Journal
    Granville Stanley Hall
  38. Founded the 1st psychology department at John Hopkinds University
    Granville Stanley Hall
  39. Took over the psychology lab for William James at Harvard University
    Hugo Munsterberg
  40. Taught Mary Whiton Calkins in the psychology laboratory, but she was not given a PdD
    Hugo Munsterberg
  41. An unofficial means by which Harvard faculty provided private classes to women
    Harvard Annex- Mary Whiton calkins
  42. Eventually, Harvard Annex became so popular that it became this.
    Radcliff College
  43. Sub-dividing a reflex into a S-R approach is nonsensical: the reflex is an indivisible coordination, for the response cannot be a response without a stimulus, and a stimulus cannot be a stimulus without a response
    Reflex Arc Concept--John Dewey/Functionalism
  44. Rejected the reductionis approach. Argued that the only way to view the mind was as a functioning instrument that guides and coordinates behavior
    John Dewey
  45. The function of the mind is the means by which mankind interacts with the environment; a mind that has a use and function is fundamental to the struggle for human life
    Functionalism's Connection to Darwinism--John Dewey
  46. Believed that the mind is a mediator in behavior. In the S-O-R approach, the mind is the organism, the O, regulates responses to environmental stimuli
    James Angell
  47. Thought that responses were adaptive acts.
    Also introduced motivation into psychology and said that behavior, as the adaptive act, begins with the motivating stimuli, followed by a sensory situation, and then a response that satisfies the motivating stimulus
    • Harvey Carr / Functionalism
    • Motivating Stimulus: Hunger
    • Sensory Situation: Environment that offers food
    • Response: Consuming the food satisfies the original motivating stimulus
  48. an idea that the faster one moves, the less accurate these movements are.
    The speed/accuracy tradeoff/ Robert Woodworth/ Functionalism
  49. In order to be more precise, one must ___ _____
    Slow down
  50. Pioneered techniques for analyzing human movements
    Robert Woodsworth/ Functionalism
  51. Speed/Accuracy Tradeoff:
    Motivation was seen as a _______ _______
    Biological Drive
  52. Devised a puzzle box, wherein hungry cats were placed and left to figure out how to get food on the outside.
    Motivating stimulus?
    Sensory Situation?
    • Edward Lee Thorndike/Functionalism
    • Motivating stimulus->hunger
    • Sensory Situation->stuck inside the box with food on the outside
    • Response->learning one's way outside the box
  53. Found that once the cats learned what techniques opened the box, they repeated these behaviors. He concluded that responses that satisfied the motivating condition were functional and an association was made between the sensory situation (the box) and the response (pulling a lever)
    Thorndike/Functionalism/Cat puzzle box
  54. Any action followed by a satisfying (functional) consequence is repeated; actions followed by unsatisfying consequences are not repeated
    • Law of Effect
    • Thorndike
  55. Law of Exercise
    • Thorndike
    • Law of Use/Disuse
  56. The more often the association is made between a response and its consequences, the stronger the association becomes
    Law of use
  57. The longer the association goes unused, the weaker the association becomes
    Law of Disuse
  58. Argued that it would be more parsimonious (simpler) to put the same explanation for what appears to be the same purposeful behavior in humans and animals
    Julian La Mettrie/ Comparative Psychology
  59. A single psychology that allows direct comparison between human and animal behavior
    • Comparative Psychology
    • Julian La Mettrie
  60. Used the anecdotal and observational approach, noting how animal sometimes appear to behave with complex intentions
    George Romanes/ Comparative Psychology
  61. Attributed animal behavior to human-like emotion, appealed to a growing public interest in the possibility that animals were more like us than previously though
    George Romanes/ Comparative Psychology
  62. Idea that is is okay to assign higher cognitive abilities to animals if such ability is required to explain their behavior.
    however, the simplest explanation is best by default
    • Morgan's Canon
    • Llod Morgan/ Comparative Psychology
  63. Thought that every behavior in plants and animals could be thought to a simple tropism, which is behavior directed at light
    Jacques Loeb/ Comparative Psychology
  64. Argued that all behavior could be broken down into simple S-R Chains
    Jacques Loeb
  65. Observed the behavior of protozoa, and found that their behavior was variable and modified by experience--they learned. He didn't disagree with the existence of mindless reflexes, but he did say that they did not account for the bulk of goal-directed behavior
    • Herbert Jennings/Comparative Psychology
    • Complex behaviors in Protazoa
  66. Found that basic reflexes do not even require the brain, and are localized entirely to the spine and peripheral nervous system
    • Sir Charles Sherrington/Comparative Psychology
    • Decerebrate Cat
  67. He discovered that cats with a removed cerebrum still exhibited reflexes on their feet--the cerebrum wasn't even involved
    Sir Charles Sherrington