Used to investigate problems in realistic settings
Cost is reasonable
Relatively Easy
Not constrained by geographical boundaries-can be conducted anywhere
Archived Data--possible to conduct survey strictly without ever developing questionnaire
Disadvantages of a Survey
Independent variables can't be manipulated like in lab-causality is difficult to establish
Bias results--question can be worded wrong
Wrong respondents included
Response rates decline
5 Types of Survey Collection
1. Mail surveys
2. Telephone
3. Personal Interview
4. Group Administration
5.Internet Survey
Cheap, slowest, low return rate
Mail Surveys
Reasonable cost, faster than mail, can't visually demonstrate
Telephone
One-on-one, structured/unstructured, most flexible
Personal Interview
Can be longer than questionnaire, response rates are high, suspicious, situation more difficult for researcher to control, very Expensive
Group Administration
low costs, no geographical limitation, no specific time restrains, flexibility in the approach used to collect data, ability to expose respondents to visual/audio material
no way to ensure that the person recruited is the person that answered the questions
Internet Survey
What are the general problems with surveys?
Subjects or respondents are often unable to recall info about themselves or their activities
Prestige bias
Subjects may purposely deceive researchers by giving incorrect answers
Respondents give elaborate answers to simple questions because they try to figure out the purpose of a study and what the researcher is doing
Surveys are often complicated by the inability of respondents to explain their true feelings, perceptions, and believes, they cannot put them into words
Variable being manipulated
Independent Variable
Variable that is observed-value depends on the other variable
Dependent Variable
Advantages of Experiments
1. Evidence of causality
2. Control
3. Cost
4. Replication
Disadvantages of Experiments
1. Artificiality
2. Researcher Bias
3. Limited scope
In experimental design:
__ Represents a random sample or random assignment
R
In experimental design:
__ Represents a treatment or manipulation of the independent variables to that the effects of these variables on the dependent variables can be measured
X
In experimental design:
__ Refers toa process of observation or measurement; it is usually followed by a numerical subscript indicating the number of the observation
O
What are the 3 categories of experimental design?
Pretest-Postest control group
Posttest-Only Control Group
Solomon Four-Group Design
This experimental design is a fundamental and widely used procedure in all research areas. Subjects are randomly selected or assigned, and each group is given a pretest. Only the first group receives the experimental treatment. If a significant statistical difference is found it is assumed that the experimental treatment was the primary cause
Pretest-Postest Control Group
This experimental design, neither group has a pretest, but Group 1 is exposed to the treatment variable, followed by a posttest . The two groups are compared to determine whether a statistical significance is present
Post-test only Control Group
This experimental design combines the first two designs and is useful if pretesting and post-testing is considered to be a negative factor. Each alternative for pre-testing and post-testing is accounted for in the design, which makes it attractive to researchers
Solomon Four-Group Design
Biggest drawback of the Solomon Four-Group Design
The design requires four separate groups, which mean more subjects, more time,and more money.
Some results produced can be difficult to interpret
Research studies involving the simultaneous analysis of two or more independent variables and each variable is called a factor
Factorial Design
This approach saves time, money, and resources and allows researchers to investigate the interaction between the variables. It is possible that two or more variables are interdependent in the effects they produce on the dependent variable, a relationship that could not be detected if two simple randomized designs were used
Factorial Studies
This design must have at least two factors or independent variables
Factorial Design
Advantages of Field Experiments
External validity
Non-reactive
can be inexpensive
may be only option to use
Disadvantages of Field Experiments
Mostly practical ones
Ethical consideration
External Hindrances
Can't control intervening variables
A table of scores ordered according to magnitude and frequency of occurance
Frequency Distribuition
a Bar Chart--vertical bars represent frequencies and scores
Histogram
A series of lines connecting points that represent the frequencies of scores
Frequency Polygon
A symmetrical, bell-shaped curve that possesses a specific mathematical characteristics
Normal curve
Extreme scores, far different from other scores
Outlier
Degree of departure of a curve from the normal distribution (positive or negative)
refers to the concentration of scores around a particular point on the x-axis
Skewness
The 3 central tendency
Mean, Median, Mode
3 Types of dispersion
range
variance
standard deviation
difference between highest and lowest score
Range
degree to which scores are different from the mean, squared so different unit from the mean
Variance
same unit as mean, the distance a score is from the mean
-help to find outliers
Standard Deviation
If a line is drawn from the midpoint of each interval at its peak along the y-axis to each adjacent midpoint/peak, the resulting graph is called a