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2010-11-06 01:51:08

everything in abdomen
Show Answers:

  1. what is the abdominal cavity lined with?
  2. Anterior boundary of abdominal cavity
    abdominal wall
  3. superior boundary of abdominal cavtiy
    diaphragm, up to 4th intercostal space
  4. when you combine the anterior and lateral walls you get...
    anterolateral wall
  5. Superior boudary of anterolateral abdominal wall
    ribs 7-10 and xiphoid
  6. inferior boundary of anterolateral abdominal wall
    inguinal ligament and pelvic bones
  7. the muscles in the anterolateral abdominal wall are:
    • external oblique
    • internal oblique
    • tranverse abdominus
    • rectus abdominus
    • linea alba
  8. Rectus Abdominus
    • Origin: pubic crest and pubic symphysis
    • Insertion: costal cartilage of ribs 5-7 and xiphoid process
    • Action: Flexion in spine & compression of abdomen
    • Innervation:anterior rami of T6-T12
  9. External Oblique
    • Origin: ribs 5-12
    • Insertion: illiac crest, pubic tubercle and linea alba
    • Action:flex spine and compress abdomen
    • Innervation: anterior rami of T7-11 and subcostal nerve
  10. Internal oblique
    • Origin: iliac crest, tracolumbar fascia
    • insertion:ribs 10-12 and linea alba
    • Action: flex spine and compress abdomen
    • innervation: anterior rami of T7-11 and L1
  11. Transverse abdominus
    • Origin:ribs 7-12, thoracolumbar fasia, iliac crest
    • Insertion:linea alba and pubis
    • Action:compression of abdomen
    • innervation: anterior rami of T7-11 and L1
  12. thoraco-abdominal nerves (T7-T11)
    • continuation of lower intercostal nerves
    • supply: muscle of anterolateral abdominal wall and overlying skin
  13. subcostal nerve (T12)
    • larger T12 anterior ramus
    • supply : muscles of anterolateral abdominal wall and overlying skin superior to iliac crest and inferior to umbillicus
  14. iliohypogastric (L1):
    • terminal branch of L1 anterior ramus
    • Supply: skin over iliac crest, upper lingual and hypogastric regions, internal oblique and transverse abdominus
  15. Ilioinguinal (L1)
    • terminal branch of L1 anterior ramus
    • supply skin of scrotum and labia majora, mons pubis, medial thigh, internal oblique and transverse abdominus
  16. nerves of the anterolateral wall:
    • thoraco-abdominal nerves
    • subcostal nerve
    • ilihypogastric
    • ilioinguinal
  17. muscle of the posterior abdominal wall are:
    • Psoas major
    • illiacus
    • quadratus lumborum
    • (along with transverse and obliques)
  18. Psoas Major
    • Origin:tranverse process lumbar vertebrae, T12-S1
    • Insertion:tendon of iliacus and lesser trochanter of femur
    • Action: flex thigh, flex trunk, flex vertebral column
    • innervation: lumbar plexus via nerves L2-L4
  19. illiacus
    • Origin:iliac fossa and sacrum
    • Insertion:tendon psoas major into lesser trochanter of femur
    • Action (w/ psoas major):flex thigh at hip joint, fles trunk , stabalize hip joint
    • innervation: femoral nerve ( L2-L4)
  20. Quadratus Lumborum
    • Origin: iliac crest
    • Insertion: 12th rib & transverse process of L1-L4
    • Action:both contract:extension lumber spine , one contracts:lateral flexion lumbar spine
    • innervation: anterior rami of T12, L1-L4
  21. What are the two parts of the peritoneum?
    • parietal
    • visceral
  22. Parietal peritoneum
    lines wall of abdominopelvic cavity
  23. Visceral peritoneum
    covers abdominal organs
  24. what are 5 major peritoneal folds?
    • greater omentum
    • falciform ligament
    • lesser omentum
    • messentery
    • mesocolon
  25. greater omentum
    largest peritoneal fold
  26. Falciform ligament
    attaches liver with anterior abdominal wall and diaphragm
  27. Lesser omentum
    suspends the stomach and duodenum from liver
  28. messentery
    binds jejenum and ileum of small intestine to abdomen wall
  29. mesocolon
    bind transverse colon and sigmoid of large intestine to posterior abdominal
  30. what are 6 basic functions of digestive function?
    • ingestion
    • secretion
    • mixing and propulsion-mix food and secretions and propel them toward the anus
    • digestion
    • absorption
    • defocation-digested materials that were nto absrobed leave body through anus
  31. Function of Esophagus
    tube that transports food from pharynx to stomach
  32. upper esophageal sphincter
    passage of food from laryngopharynx into esophagus
  33. whats the purpose of the elevations of the larynx?
    allows sphincter to relax and lets the blous to enter esophagus
  34. lower esophageal sphincter
    relaxes during swallowing and allow bolus to pass from esophagus into stomach
  35. what does the stomach connect ?
    esophagus to duodenum
  36. what are 4 main regions of stomach?
    cardia, fundus, body, pylorus
  37. 2 parts of the pylorus:
    • pyloris antrum: connects to body of stomach
    • pyloric canal: leads into duodenum
  38. what are 3 layers of muscle of the stomach?
    circular, oblique and longitudinal
  39. what are 3 regions of small intestine?
    duodenum, jejenum and illeum
  40. Duodenum
    • shortest region
    • *retroperitoneal
    • approx 25cm
  41. Jejenum
    • 1m long
    • extends to ileum
  42. Ileum
    • longest region (2m)
    • joins large intestine at ileocecal sphincter
  43. what are 4 regions of larger intestine?
    cecum, colon, rectum and anal canal
  44. approx how long is large intestine?
    1.5 long and 6.5 cm diameter
  45. Cecum
    • -about 6 cm long
    • -connect ileum with ascelndign colon
  46. ileocecal sphincter
    allows materials to pass from small intestine to large itnestine
  47. Characteristics of rectum
    • -last 20 cm of GI tract
    • Anus
    • internal anal sphincter: smooth muscle
    • External anal sphincter: skeletal muscle
  48. which horomones does the pacreas secrete
    insulin and glucagon (regulte blood sugar)
  49. where is pancreas located
    behind the stomach
  50. which enzymes are secreted by pancreas
    enzymes that are involved in digestion of fats and proteins in small intestine
  51. parts of the pancreas:
    • tail: touches spleen
    • body: behind stomach
    • head: encircled by duodenum
  52. size of the spleen:
    12 cm long and 7cm wide
  53. what are two main surfaces of the liver?
    • diaphragmatic and visceral
    • *connected to stomach by lesser omentum
  54. what is the largest internal orgam?
  55. functions of the liver :
    • storage of glycogen and vitamins and minerals
    • phagocytosis:
    • activation of vitamin D
  56. Ex of liver functions
    • lipid metabolism
    • carbohydrate metabolism
    • protein metabolism
    • processing drugs and horomone
  57. what are 3 components of the liver
    • 1.hepatocytes
    • 2.bile canaliculi-small ducts b/w hepatocytes
    • 3. hepatic sinusoids: capillaries- rows of hepatocytes
  58. Describe the movement of bile:
    • right and left hepatic ducts unite and exit lover as common hepatic duct
    • common hepatic duct joins cystic duct to form common bile duct
    • bile goes to small intestine
  59. describe blood supply to lvier:
    • hepatic portal system- drains blood from dgestive organs, sends it to liver
    • hepatic artery and hepatic portal vein carry blood to liver sinusoids where oxygen, nutrients and toxic substance taken up by hepatocytes
    • blood leaves liver by hepatic veins
    • hepatic veins drain inferior vena cava
  60. what does the urinary system consist of:?
    • 2 kidneys
    • 2 ureters
    • 1 urinary bladder
    • 1 urethra
  61. Urine is:
    the remaining salt and water that is not sent back to bloodstream
  62. urine is stored in the____ until it is excretedd through the____
    urinary bladder, urethra
  63. what are 4 basic kidney functions?
    • 1.ion regulation and osmoregulation
    • -salt and water balance
    • 2.waster management
    • -excrete matabolic wastes
    • 3.horomone production
    • -function as andocrine glands
    • -prodeuce and release vitamin D, erythropoetin and renin
    • 4.gluconeogenesis
    • -production of glucose from non carbonate sources
  64. function of cortex of kidney:
    filteration (glomeruli)
  65. function of medulla of kidney:
    re-absorption (loops of henle)
  66. size of a kidney?
  67. renal medulla consists of several ____
    renal pyramids
  68. what are 2 parts of a nephron?
    • renal corpuscle- blood plasma
    • renal tubule- the filtered fluid oasses through
  69. what are 2 parts of renal corpuscle?
    • glomerulus-blood filtering
    • blood flows in with afferent ateriole and leaves afferent arteriole
    • bowman's capsule: where nephron surrounds glomerular capillaries
  70. what does the renal tubule consist of?
    • proximal tubule
    • loop of henle
    • distal tubule
    • collecting duct
  71. explain how urine goes from kidney to urinary bladder
    • urine drains into collecting duct
    • urine then drains into papillary ducts
    • papillary ducts drain into minor and major calyces
    • urine then travels into single cavity called renal pelvis
    • from renal pelvis goes through ureter into urinary bladder
  72. what is the physiological valve of the ureter?
    when bladder fills with urin the pressure in it compresses the openings into ureters to prevent backflow of urine
  73. what is the capacity for the urinary bladder?
  74. what is the small triangular area in the urinary bladder?
  75. discharge of urine from urinary bladder is called?
  76. is the urethra longer in males or females?
    males its is 20 cm comapred to 4cm
  77. what are the three regions the male urethra is divided into?
    • prostatic urethra
    • membranous urethra
    • spongy urethra
  78. blood flow in ____ is higher for rapid filteration and lower in ____ to allow max. reabsorption
    cortex, medulla