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Name 5 causes of back pain.
- Traumatic: intervebral disc disease - usually L4-5, L5-S1, muscular, fracture
- Neoplastic: metastases, haem e.g.MM, osteosarcoma
- Metabolic: Paget's, osteomalacia, osteoporosis
- Inflammatory: herpes, osteomyelitis (esp. staph), ankylosing spondylitis
- Other: osteoarthritis, spondylolysis (common at L5-S1), spinal stenosis
- Referred pain: aortic aneurysm, PID, pancreatitis, peptic ulcer
What is the T-score and what score is osteopenia & osteoporosis?
- Number of standard deviations below normal compared to young population =T-score
- Osteopenia = -1 to -2.5
- Osteoporosis = -2.5 and lower
What is the gene associated with ankylosing spondylitis?
What are syndesmophytes?
- Zones of calcification at the edge of interveterbral discs
- Characteristic of ankylosing spondylitis
Which 4 cancers are the most common bone mets?
- Breast (70% of bone mets in women) - mixed
- Prostate (60% of all bone mets in men) - sclerotic
- Lung - lytic (mainly) with minor sclerotic
- Kidney - lytic and expansile
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