Card Set Information
Protein produced in response to the presence of an antigen; each antibody combines with a specific antigen.
Foreign substance, usually a protein or a polysaccharide, that stimulates the immune system to react, such as to produce antibodies.
In humans, the major systemic artery that takes blood from the heart to the tissues.
Vessel that takes blood from an artery to capillaries.
Blood vessel that transports blood away from the heart.
Heart valve located between an atrium and a ventricle.
atrium (pl., atria)
Chamber; particularly an upper chamber of the heart lying above a ventricle.
AV (atrioventricular) node
Small region of neuromuscular tissue that transmits impulses received from the SA node to the ventricular walls.
Fluid circulated by the heart through a closed system of vessels.
Force of blood pushing against the inside wall of blood vessels.
Microscopic blood vessel; gases and other substances are exchanged across the walls of a capillary between blood and tissue fluid.
One complete cycle of systole and diastole for all heart chambers.
Organ system in which blood vessels distribute blood under the pumping action of the heart.
closed circulatory system
Cardiovascular system in all vertebrates and some invertebrates that is composed of a muscular heart and blood vessels.
Relaxation period of a heart chamber during the cardiac cycle.
Recording of the electrical activity associated with the heartbeat.
Constituents of blood that are either cellular (red blood cells and white blood cells) or at least cellular in origin (platelets).
Muscular organ whose contraction causes blood to circulate in the body of an animal.
Damage to the myocardium due to blocked circulation in the coronary arteries; myocardial infarction.
Clicking or swishy sounds, often due to leaky valves.
Body cavity in arthropods where exchange between hemolymph and tissues occurs.
Iron-containing respiratory pigment occurring in vertebrate red blood cells and in the blood plasma of some invertebrates.
Elevated blood pressure, particularly the diastolic pressure.
Fluid, derived from tissue fluid, that is carried in lymphatic vessels.
Organ system consisting of lymphatic vessels and lymphatic organs; transports lymph and lipids, and aids the immune system.
Vessel that carries lymph.
Specialized white blood cell that functions in specific defense; occurs in two forms�T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes.
In vertebrates, large phagocytic cell derived from a monocyte that ingests microbes and debris.
Type of a granular leukocyte that functions as a phagocyte, particularly after it becomes a macrophage.
Granular leukocyte that is the most abundant of the white blood cells; first to respond to infection.
open circulatory system
Circulatory system, such as that found in a grasshopper, where a tubular heart pumps hemolymph through channels and body cavities.
ostium (pl., ostia)
Opening in the heart of an animal with an open circulatory system, which allows blood to fill the relaxed heart.
Accumulation of soft masses of fatty material, particularly cholesterol, beneath the inner linings of the arteries.
In vertebrates, the liquid portion of blood; contains nutrients, wastes, salts, and proteins.
Formed element in blood that is necessary to blood clotting.
Pathway of blood flow that begins and ends in capillaries, such as the portal system located between the small intestine and liver.
Blood vessel that takes blood away from the heart to the lungs.
Circulatory pathway between the lungs and the heart.
Large blood vessel that divides into the pulmonary arteries; takes blood away from the heart to the lungs.
Blood vessel that takes blood to the heart from the lungs.
Vibration felt in arterial walls due to expansion of the aorta following ventricle contraction.
red blood cell
Erythrocyte; contains hemoglobin and carries oxygen from the lungs or gills to the tissues in vertebrates.
SA (sinoatrial) node
Small region of neuromuscular tissue that initiates the heartbeat; also called the pacemaker.
Valve resembling a half-moon located between the ventricles and their attached vessels.
Partition or wall that divides two areas; the septum in the heart separates the right half from the left half.
Cavity into which hemolymph flows and baths the organs in an open circulatory system. Also, air-filled spaces in nasal cavities.
Condition resulting when an arteriole in the brain bursts or becomes blocked by an embolism; cerebrovascular accident.
Circulatory pathway of blood flow between the tissues and the heart.
Contraction period of the heart during the cardiac cycle.
Enzyme that converts fibrinogen to fibrin threads during blood clotting.
Blood vessel that arises from venules and transports blood toward the heart.
vena cava (pl., venae cavae)
Large systemic vein that returns blood to the right atrium of the heart in tetrapods; either the superior or inferior vena cava.
Cavity in an organ, such as a lower chamber of the heart or the ventricles of the brain.
Vessel that takes blood from capillaries to a vein.
white blood cell
Leukocyte, of which there are several types, each having a specific function in protecting the body from invasion by foreign substances and organisms.