Located inferior to the thoracic cavity and is separated from it by the diaphragm; contains most other internal organs except the heart and the lungs.
alveolus (pl., alveoli)
In humans, terminal, microscopic, grapelike air sac found in lungs.
Outlet of the digestive tube.
Structure located in the walls of the aorta; contains chemoreceptors sensitive to hydrogen ion and carbon dioxide concentrations in the blood.
In humans, small, tubular appendage containing lymphatic tissue, that extends outward from the cecum of the large intestine; a part of the immune system.
Ion that participates in buffering the blood, and the form in which carbon dioxide is transported in the bloodstream.
Secretion of the liver that is temporarily stored and concentrated in the gallbladder before being released into the small intestine, where it emulsifies fat.
Mass of chewed food mixed with saliva.
In terrestrial vertebrates, small tube that conducts air from a bronchus to the alveoli.
bronchus (pl., bronchi)
In terrestrial vertebrates, branch of the trachea that leads to the lungs.
Consumer in a food chain that eats other animals.
Structure located at the branching of the carotid arteries; contain chemoreceptors sensitive to hydrogen ion and carbon dioxide concentrations in blood.
Thick, semiliquid food material that passes from the stomach to the small intestine.
Body cavity lying between the digestive tract and body wall that is completely lined by mesoderm.
Duct within the kidney that receives fluid from several nephrons; the reabsorption of water occurs here.
continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD)
Dialysis that takes place inside the body using the peritoneum, the natural lining of the abdomen, as the dialysis membrane.
Material that passes through the membrane in dialysis.
In mammals, dome-shaped muscularized sheet separating the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity important in inhalation. Also, a birth control device consisting of a soft rubber or latex cup that fits over the cervix.
Excessively frequent and watery bowel movements.
Final portion of a nephron that joins with a collecting duct; associated with tubular secretion.
First part of the small intestine where chyme enters from the stomach.
Swelling due to tissue fluid accumulation in the intercellular spaces.
Breaking up of fat globules into smaller droplets by the action of bile salts or any other emulsifier.
Ductless organ that secretes hormone(s) into the bloodstream.
Structure that covers the glottis and closes off the air tract during the process of swallowing.
Muscular tube for moving swallowed food from the pharynx to the stomach.
Gland that discharges its secretion into ducts; the pancreas is an exocrine gland when it secretes pancreatic juice into the duodenum.
Movement of small molecules from a blood capillary into the nephron capsule due to the action of blood pressure.
Organ attached to the liver that serves to store and concentrate bile.
Opening for airflow in the larynx.
Hormone secreted by the pancreas, which causes the liver to break down glycogen and raises the blood glucose level.
Iron-containing group found in hemoglobin.
Cleansing of blood by using an artificial membrane that causes substances to diffuse from blood into a dialysis fluid.
Primary consumer in a grazing food chain; a plant eater.
Hormone secreted by the pancreas that lowers the blood glucose level by promoting the uptake of glucose by cells and the conversion of glucose to glycogen by the liver and skeletal muscles.
Enzyme, produced by the epithelial cells on the surface of villi, which functions in the digestion of small organic molecules.
Paired organs of the vertebrate urinary system that regulate the chemical composition of the blood and produce a waste product called urine.
Lymphatic vessel in an intestinal villus; aids in the absorption of fats.
In vertebrates, portion of the digestive tract that follows the small intestine; in humans, consists of the cecum, colon, rectum, and anal canal.
Cartilaginous organ located between the pharynx and the trachea; in humans, contains the vocal cords; sometimes called the voice box.
Fat-digesting enzyme secreted by the pancreas.
Large, dark red internal organ that produces urea and bile, detoxifies the blood, stores glycogen, and produces the plasma proteins, among other functions.
Internal respiratory organs containing moist surfaces for gas exchange.
Blind, threadlike excretory tubule near the anterior end of an insect's hindgut.
Enzyme produced in small intestine that breaks down maltose to two glucose molecules.
microvillus (pl., microvilli)
Cylindrical process that extends from an epithelial cell of a villus and serves to increase the surface area of the cell.
In humans, organ of the digestive tract where food is chewed and mixed with saliva.
One of two canals in the nose, separated by a septum.
Microscopic kidney unit that regulates blood composition by filtration, reabsorption, and secretion.
Cuplike structure that is the initial portion of a nephron.
Portion of a nephron between the proximal and distal tubules; functions in water reabsorption.
Enzyme that catalyzes decomposition of nucleic acids.
Organism in a food chain that feeds on both plants and animals.
Internal organ that produces digestive enzymes and the hormones insulin and glucagon.
Enzyme that digests starch to maltose.
Enzyme secreted by gastric glands that digests proteins to peptides.
Intestinal enzyme that breaks down short chains of amino acids to individual amino acids that are absorbed across the intestinal wall.
Wavelike contractions that propel substances along a tubular structure such as the esophagus.
In vertebrates, common passageway for both food intake and air movement; located between the mouth and the esophagus.
Small, abnormal growth that arises from the epithelial lining.
Portion of a nephron following the nephron capsule where reabsorption of filtrate occurs.
Movement of primarily nutrient molecules and water from the contents of the nephron into blood at the proximal tubule.
Outer portion of the kidney that appears granular.
Inner portion of the kidney that consists of renal pyramids.
Hollow chamber in the kidney that lies inside the renal medulla and receives freshly prepared urine from the collecting ducts.
Sequence of events that results in gas exchange between the cells of the body and the environment.
In humans, enzyme in saliva that digests starch to maltose.
In humans, gland associated with the mouth that secretes saliva.
In the cell, release of a substance by exocytosis from a cell that may be a gland or part of a gland; in the urinary system, movement of certain molecules from blood into the distal tubule of a nephron so that they are added to urine.
Cavity into which hemolymph flows and baths the organs in an open circulatory system. Also, air-filled spaces in nasal cavities.
In vertebrates, the portion of the digestive tract that precedes the large intestine; in humans, consists of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum; responsible for most digestion and absorption.
In vertebrates, muscular sac that mixes food with gastric juices to form chyme, which enters the small intestine.
Located in the ventral cavity above the abdominal cavity and is separated from the abdominal cavity by the diaphragm; contains the heart and the lungs.
trachea (pl., tracheae)
In tetrapod vertebrates, air tube (windpipe) that runs between the larynx and the bronchi.
Protein-digesting enzyme secreted by the pancreas.
Tubular structure conducting urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder.
Tubular structure that receives urine from the bladder and carries it to the outside of the body.
Organ system consisting of the kidneys and urinary bladder; rids the body of nitrogenous wastes and helps regulate the water-salt balance of the blood.
Liquid waste product made by the nephrons of the vertebrate kidney through the processes of filtration, reabsorption, and secretion.
villus (pl., villi)
Small, fingerlike projection of the inner small intestinal wall.
In humans, folds of tissue within the larynx; create vocal sounds when they vibrate.