Aircraft Engine and Systems
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What causes five factors cause carberutor icing?
1. vaporized fuel
2. cool air
a. gives a cooler mixture
3. formation of water vapor
4. drop of temperature perhapes to 32 F
5. frost on the walls of the carburetor.
For a fixed pitch propelller aircraft what is the first sign of carburetor icing?
lost of RPMs
After carburetor heat is pulled out what is a method for determining if the carburetor ice has been eliminated?
1. roughness at first
2. carb heat off the RPMs should go up higher than before
3. the engine should run smoother
What is the general condition for carburetor icing
80% humiditiy with 70 F
* even on hot 100 F temperature in the carburetor can drop and developing icing
What is detonation?
Detonation is an explosion of the fuel and air mixture in the combustion chamber of the cylinder
What causes detonation?
excessive temperature and pressure
operating at high RPMs
What can happen three failures can detonation cause?
What does detonation cause ?
1. engine roughness
3. loss of power
What procedures should be done to correct for detonation?
1. reduce rate of climb
2. reduce power
3. enrich the fuel and air mixture
*essentially anything to cool the engine and reduce the pressure of the fuel air charge
What is pre-ignition?
Pre-iginition occurs when the fuel and air mixture ignites prior to the engine's normal ignition event
What causing pre-ignition?
Hot spots in the combustion chamber of the cylinder
How can pre-ignition damage the aircraft?
too much pressure on the piston
What should a pilot do to correct pre-ignition?
1. reduce power
2. reduce rate of climb
3. enrich fuel/air mixture
When going from BOTH to one mag (doesn't matter left one or right one) you notice there is not drop in RPM
The opposite mag is grounded and only one mag is working while the other is totally failed
What does it mean if the ammeter indicates a continous discharge while in flight?
The alternator has quite producing a charge
If the ammeter is showing a continous discharge and the alternator has quite working what should be checked?
The alternator circuit break should be checked and reset
The ammeter is showing a continous discharged and the alternator has been reset and still the ammeter shows a continous discharge what should be done?
1. turn the alternator off
2. turn off all electrical equipment not essential to flight
3. land as soon as possible because now the battery is the only source of electrical energy
What will happen to a battery that is being overcharged by an alternator?
explosion of the battery
Will the alternator show down before the explosion of a battery ?
What procedures should be done if the ammeter is charging two widths of the needle?
1. shut down the alternator because it is overcharging the battery
2. turn off electrical equipment not essential to flight
3. terminate the flight ASAP
There is a normal oil temperature, but oil pressure is low, what could be the three possible problems?
1. not enough oil
2. clogged oil pressure relief valve
3. oil pressure guage malfunction
* be sure to land and at the nearest airport and check it out
With a parital loss of power what are the eight steps to follow?
1. best glide speed of 60
2. establish a emergency landing area
3. check carburetor heat
4. check fuel guage for the amount of fuel
5. check fuel selector valve position
6. check mixture control
7. check that primer control is all the way in and locked
- 8. check the operation of the magnetos in all three positions
- a. both
- b. left
- c. right
What are the 8 procedures to follow if an engine fire developes in flight ?
1. mixture to idle cut off
2. fuel selector valve off
3. turn master switch off
4. cabin heat and air vent off
5. leave overhead valves on
6. establish 100Ks airspeed
- 7. increase angle of descent
- a . lessen the combustion of mixture
8. execute landing procedures
If there is a engine fire while on the ground always continue to start the engine but if the engine does not start by sure to what ?
1. set throttle to full positioin
2. set mixture to idle cut off
3. continue to try and engine start in attempt to put out the fire by a vacuum
4. evacuate the plane and find a fire extinguisher
Ground fire and engine starts what next ?
1. increase the power to high RPMs
2. shut down the engine and inspect it
Fire on the ground and the fire continues what next?
1. turn the ignition switch off
2. turn the master switch off
3. set the fuel selector to off
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