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Bio 204 questions
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  1. Provide a technical definition of an animal
    • Multicellular heterotrophic eukaryotes that
    • ingest food items, with tissues that develop from embryonic germ layers
  2. How does the animal condition differ from that
    found in fungi & plants (remember that plants & fungi are also multi-cellular)?
    • They are mostly photoautotrophs who get energy from light or chemoherterotrophs who
    • get energy from organic compounds
  3. Characterize choanoflagellates (i.e., size,
    morphology) and explain why choanoflagellates are thought to be closely-related
    to animals?
    Small aquatic with flagella
  4. Related because they are unicellular but often
    live as colonies
  5. What are three primary apomorphies for Metazoa
    (animals)
    • ·
    • Extracellular matrix

    • ·
    • 1000s of shared genomic changes in the genome,
    • unique to animals

    • ·
    • HOX genes (highly-conserved developmental
    • regulatory genes)
  6. What are the primary molecules in and fractions
    of the extracellular matrix?
    • ·
    • Glycoproteins (protein + carbo molecules =>
    • proteoglycans) & collagen
  7. What is a “body plan”
    • ·
    • Description of the overall system of body
    • organization (e.g., symmetry, tissue complexity, appendages, segmentation,
    • etc.)
  8. What are the habitat characteristics of most
    major Metazoan groups? Exceptions?
    • ·
    • Mostly aquatic with exception in vertebrates and
    • arthropods
  9. About how many species of invertebrate animals
    have been described? What about vertebrate animals
    • ·
    • Only 50,000 of the known species 1.3 million
    • species are vertebrates
  10. Provide a brief timeline of life on earth,
    including 1.) age of earth, 2.) fossil evidence for first life, 3.) fossil
    evidence for first Metazoans?
    • ·
    • Earth: ~ 4.6 billion YA

    • ·
    • First fossil evidence for life: ~3.5 million YA

    • ·
    • Fossil evidence of first Metazoans: ~560 MYA
  11. What is the Cambrian Explosion? When did this
    occur? Why is this event called an “explosion”?
    • ·
    • ~530 MYA

    • ·
    • All primary animal groups appears suddenly, lots
    • of diversity over a very short period of time
  12. Provide three explanations for the Cambrian
    Explosion?
    • ·
    • Diversification in HOX gene cluster (major
    • genomic changes, causing major morphological changes)

    • ·
    • Increased atomospheric oxygen => increased
    • metabolic rates, larger sizes

    • ·
    • Escalation of predator-prey relationships
    • (development of more complex food-webs)
  13. Describe, in general terms, how a molecular
    clock is applies
    • ·
    • Known divergence dates for subset of living
    • species (from fossil or biogeographic constraints)

    • ·
    • Observed genetic distance from same subset of
    • living species (e.g., 100 nucleotide differences in 1000 bp gene= 10%
    • divergence) => convert this to the rate of genetic divergence per unit time
    • (e.g., 1% divergence per million years)

    • ·
    • Estimate divergence dates for other living
    • species based on genetic divergence values only
  14. What are the three main groups of sponges, and
    how are they distinguished?
    • ·
    • Demosponges

    • o
    • Skeletons comprised of collagen or sponging
    • protein

    • o
    • 90% of all sponges

    • ·
    • Calcerea

    • o
    • Skeletons of calcium carbonate spicules

    • ·
    • Hexactinellid Sponges (glass sponges)

    • o
    • Skeletons made of fused silica spicules

    • o
    • Typically live at great depths in oceans
  15. What are two primary features that suggest a
    relatively early phylogenetic divergence for Sponges?
    • ·
    • Cellular grade of organization (GoO)- lack true
    • embryological germ cell layers, lack adult tissue layers (contrasts with tissue
    • GoO all other animals )

    • ·
    • More cell individuality then typical cells in
    • remaining animals (some cells mobile, and cell differentiation is reversible)

    • ·
    • regeneration
  16. Discuss the general characteristics of Sponges
    (e.g. habitats, symmetry, lifestyle, fossil record)
    • ·
    • ~8000 described species

    • ·
    • Fossil record to Cambrian

    • ·
    • Lack organized body symmetry (~asymmetrical)

    • ·
    • Sessile

    • ·
    • Filter feeders
  17. How are sponge bodies supported?
    • ·
    • By a gelatinous matrix (mesohyl), supported by a
    • skeleton of spicules (calcium carbonate; silica) and/or protein (collagen,
    • sponging)
  18. What are the three primary cell types found in
    sponges, and what are their specific functions?
    • ·
    • Porocytes- cells surrounding pore (ostia)
    • opening

    • ·
    • Amoebocytes- food transport, structural support
    • (e.g., producing spicules)

    • ·
    • Choanocytes (collar cells)- create water
    • currents and trap microscopic food particles/gametes; also involved in egg
    • & sperm production
  19. How do choanocytes work, and how are these cells
    fundamental to the sponge design?
    • ·
    • They create a current which pulls water into the
    • sponge where it gets its nutrients and disposes of waste
  20. Why aren’t sponges typically eaten or
    over-grown? (two reasons)
    • ·
    • Glass or calcite spicules

    • ·
    • Production of various bio-active compounds,
    • often in association with symbiotic bacteria
  21. Be able to discuss the biological properties of
    the sponge molecule sceptrin
    • ·
    • Anit-cancer, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory

    • ·
    • Inhibits cell mobility in various cancer cell
    • lines
  22. Define “DNA barcoding.” Why are sponges a good
    candidate group for the applications of DNA barcoding?
    • ·
    • DNA Barcoding: use of rapidly-evolving sequences
    • for species identification
  23. What is the defining feature for Eumetazoan
    animals?
    • ·
    • They have true tissues, derived from embryonic
    • germ cell layers (EGCLs)
  24. Define diploblastic. What are the two embryonic
    germ cell layers in diploblasts, and which tissue layers do these give rise to
    in Cnidaria?
    • ·
    • Diploblastic: have 2 EGCLs (ectoderm &
    • endoderm)

    • ·
    • Endoderm -> gastrodermis

    • ·
    • Ectoderm-> epiderms
  25. Define radial symmetry. Define filter-feeder.
    • ·
    • Radial symmetry: multiple planes resulting in
    • equivalent halves

    • ·
    • Filter-feeder: pass food particles past a
    • capturing organ
  26. What is the function of the gastrovascular
    cavity in Cnidarians? How does this function relate to basic cellular
    requirements (i.e., nutrition, respierations, etc)?
    • ·
    • Gastrovascular cavity: simple transport system
    • for exchange of food items, gases, wastes
  27. What is the function of cnidocytes and
    nematocysts?
    • ·
    • For capturing prey
  28. What is the mechanism of nematocyst discharge in
    Hydra cnidarians?
    • ·
    • Combination of osmotic pressure (calcium ions
    • dumped from capsule into cytoplasm), plus energy stored in mini-collagen
    • proteins of capsule wall
  29. Contrast and draw the two diploid morphological
    types found in Cnidaria polyp vs. medusa
    • ·
    • Polyp: oral side up, typically sessile, benthic
    • habitats

    • ·
    • Medusa: oral side down, free-floating, pelagic
    • habitats (open ocean)
  30. Discuss the colonial body organization of
    Physalia
    • ·
    • A colony of physiologically-connected 2N
    • individuals (zoolids), derived from a single zooid by budding
  31. 1.)
    What are the four major groups of Cnidaria, and
    how do these groups differ in which morphological type (i.e., polyp or medusa)
    is the dominant lifestage?
    • ·
    • Hydrozoa

    • o
    • Both polyp and medusa stages

    • ·
    • Scyphozoan

    • o
    • Polyp stage absent or reduced

    • ·
    • Cubozoa

    • o
    • Polyp stage short-lived, in most cases unknown

    • ·
    • Anthrozoa

    • o
    • No medusa
  32. What are coral reefs? What are coral reefs economically
    & ecologically valuable?
    • ·
    • Corals: some hydorzoans, mostly anthrozoans
  33. What are the “localized” and “global” threats to
    coral reefs?
    • ·
    • Localized: land-based pollution (chemicals &
    • sedimentation), mining, “blast” fishing

    • ·
    • Global: waters too warm (photosynthetic
    • dinoflagellates are expelled, corals “bleach”), declining pH associated with
    • absorption of increased CO2 (coral calcification decreases with declining pH
  34. What are three main innovations defining
    Bilateria?
    • ·
    • Organ systems (primary four: digestive, respiratory,
    • excretory, circulatory)

    • ·
    • Bilateral symmetry & cephalization

    • ·
    • Triploblastic-> 3 EGCLs
  35. Define bilateral symmetry and cephalization
    • ·
    • Bilateral symmetry: single plane of symmetry
    • divides body into mirror halves

    • ·
    • Cephalization: concentration of feeding organs,
    • sensory & neural structures at the anterior end of body
  36. What is the triploblastic condition? What are
    the ultimate developmental fates of the three individual triploblastic germ
    cell layers in bilaterians?
    • ·
    • # EGCLs: endoderm, ectoderm, mesoderm

    • ·
    • Ectoderm: outer body covering, nervous system

    • ·
    • Endoderm: gut lining, liver, lungs

    • ·
    • Mesoderm: true muscle tissue, bone, connective
    • tissues, etc…
  37. Give examples of protostome animals and Deuterstome animals
    • ·
    • Protostome: arthropods, mollusks, various worms,
    • etc. (most invertebrates)

    • ·
    • Deuterostomes: star fish, hemichordates,
    • chordates
  38. What are the primary differences between
    Deuterostomes vs. Protostomes? –remember the Table of differences
    • ·
    • Position of nervous system
    • (ventral in protostomes, dorsal in deuterosomes)
    • ·
    • Gene duplication in HOX gene family
    • (no duplication in protostomes, duplication of posterior HOX genes in deuterostomes)

    • ·
    • Fate of blastopre (earliest opening of future
    • gut during embryonic development)
    • (mouth in protostomes, anus in seuterostomes)
  39. Three genomic processes have resulted in the HOX
    gene differences observed between Protostomes and Deuterstomes- what are these
    precesses?
    • ·
    • Duplication of genes on a single chromosome->
    • resulting in “family” of related genes

    • ·
    • Whole genome duplication (2X) in early-diverging
    • deuterostomes

    • ·
    • Some genes lose functional redundancy
  40. Define gastrulation, blastopore, and
    archenteron.
    • ·
    • Gastrulation: invagination of endoderm to form
    • archenteron (future gut)

    • ·
    • Blastopore: earliest opening of future gut

    • ·
    • Archenteron: future gut
  41. What are the primary characters supporting the
    Lophotrochozoans (molecular or morphological)? What are the two morphological
    features found in some, but not all Lophotrochozoans?
    • ·
    • Some taxa with lophophore (ciliated feeding
    • structure), some taxa with trochophore larvae
  42. What are the primary phylogenetic groups of
    Platyhelminthes, and the lifestyles of these primary taxa?
    • ·
    • Turbellaria- not parasites

    • ·
    • Monogenea- fish ectoperasites

    • ·
    • Trematoda- vertebrate endoparasites

    • ·
    • Cestoda- animal endoparasites
  43. Summarize the morphological features found in a
    “generalized platyhelminth” (e.g., symmetry, cell layers, placement of nervous
    system, etc.)
    • ·
    • Expected bilaterian features: bilateral
    • symmetry, cephalized, triploblastic

    • ·
    • Ventral NS

    • ·
    • Flattened shape

    • ·
    • Highly-branched blind, gut
  44. Define parasitism. Your friend tells you that a
    parasites are lowly animals, barely evolved. You respond, “no sir, “ parasites
    are actually very successful, for the following reasons…
    • ·
    • Parasitism: benefit at expense of host

    • ·
    • Essentially all animal groups include some
    • parasitic representatives, perhaps ½ of all animals species are parasites, and
    • basically all animals serve as hosts for one or more parasites
  45. Discribe and illustrate the complex lifecycle of
    a Schistosoma fluke. What is the biological significance of larval stages that
    use intermediate hosts?
    • ·
    • The larva uses the intermediate host as a
    • mechanism for reaching the new primary host
  46. Talk about the global distribution, prevalence,
    and impact of Schistosomiasis in humans.
    • ·
    • Distributed in tropical countries around the
    • world

    • ·
    • Causes chronic illness or liver/kidney damage
    • (symptoms in response to egg deposition), ~20 million humans severely ill, with
    • over 200 million people infected worldwide
  47. Schistosoma flukes have three cellular/molecular
    mechanisms that prevent detection by the host immune system- what are these
    mechanisms?
    • ·
    • Mask surface with host proteins-> immune
    • masking

    • ·
    • Syncytium is not a static layer, undergoes
    • frequent transformation

    • ·
    • Very few parasite proteins expressed exclusively
    • in wall of tegument (few targets for host immune response)
  48. Why is the sequencing of the Schistosoma genome
    potentially important in the control of Schistosomiasis.
    • ·
    • We can disable fluke genes that are necessary
    • for metabolism/survival/reproduction in human host
  49. What is the general bodyplan of a cestode
    (tapeworm)? -function of scolex & proglottids? How do tapeworms gain
    nutrients without a digestive tract?
    • ·
    • Scolex- attachment devices

    • ·
    • Proglottids- long chaing of reproductive
    • segments

    • ·
    • No digestive tract
  50. Symmarize the species and ecological diversity
    of mollusks. What are the 3 major groups of mulluscs, with examples of each?
    • ·
    • Gastropoda (snails, slugs)

    • ·
    • Bivalvia (clams, mussels, scallops, oysters)

    • ·
    • Cephalopoda (squids, octopuses, cuttlefishes,
    • chambered nautiluses)
  51. Most (not all) mollusks share 3 primary features
    in common. What are these? What are possible functions of these primary
    features?
    • ·
    • Ventral muscular foot: used for locomotion, as
    • holdfast, and feeding

    • ·
    • Visceral Mass: houses internal organs (primary
    • four)

    • ·
    • Dorsal Mantle: cell layer that secretes shell
    • for protection against predation, prevents mechanical damage, prevents
    • dessication (when terrestrial)
  52. Some opisthobranchs lack shells. How do they
    protect themselves from the predators that abound in marine habitats?
    • ·
    • Camouflage
  53. What are conotoxins? How has conotoxin diversity
    evolved?
    • ·
    • Conotoxins- bioactive peptides (small 10-40 AA
    • protesting)

    • ·
    • 50,000-100,000 different peptides having evolved
    • in genus
  54. Provide details of one example of a conotoxin
    that has been developed as a drug- e.g. how does the drug work? Why is the drug
    a nice alternative to morphine?
    • ·
    • Prialt: non-addictive, anti-tolerance treatment
    • for severe chronic pain

    • ·
    • Selectively blockes voltage-gated calcium
    • channels (propagates action potentials)
  55. Many cephalopods, like some snail groups, have
    lost their shell, how are such animals protected from predation
    Fast, well camouflaged, and cryptic
  56. Cephalopods have a camera-lens type eye.
    Illustrate this condition. This type of eye is said to have evolved
    convergently in cephalopods and vertebrates- what is meant by this?
    • ·
    • Camera-lens eye: functionally very similar to
    • vertebrate eye

    • ·
    • Convergent: came to the same conclusion (in this
    • case independently)
  57. What is primary morphological apomorphy for the
    protostome group ecdysozoa? What is ecdysis?
    • ·
    • Primary morphological apomorphy

    • o
    • Protein based outer body covering (cuticle)
    • which is periodically molted for growth

    • ·
    • Ecdysozoans= “molting animals”
  58. Ecdysozoan phylogenetic groups fall into 2
    general categories- what are these, and how do these groups differ?
    • ·
    • Ecdysozoans

    • o
    • Worm-like bodyplans

    • o
    • Lack appendages, mostly marine, possess internal
    • fluid-based skeleton (hydrostatic skeleton)

    • ·
    • Arthropods

    • o
    • Segmented bodies

    • o
    • Appendages

    • o
    • Cuticle with structural polysaccharide chitin

    • o
    • terrestrial
  59. What are the arthropod relatives? What features
    do they chare with arthropods (at least 3)?
    • ·
    • Tardigrada “Water Bears” & Onychopora
    • “velvet worms”

    • ·
    • Shared feat:

    • o
    • Segmented bodies

    • o
    • Evolution of appendages

    • o
    • Cuticle with structural polysaccharide chiting

    • o
    • terrestrial
  60. Many biologists claim that arthropods are the
    most successful animal lineage. What are 3 measures of “evolutionary success”
    for Arthropods.
    • ·
    • Species diversity- 2/3 of every known animal
    • species is an arthropod

    • ·
    • Ecological diversity- live in all habitats

    • ·
    • Numerically dominant metazoans- some estimates
    • suggest a billion, billion individuals
  61. What are the four main groups of living
    arthropods, and the habitats in which each group can be found?
    • ·
    • Crustacean- marine and freshwater (lobsters,
    • crabs)

    • ·
    • Hexapoda- terrestrial, some have secondarily
    • evolved back into freshwater (insects)

    • ·
    • Chelicerata- marine and terrestrial (scorpions,
    • spiders, horseshoe crabs)

    • ·
    • Myriapoda- all terrestrial (centipedes and
    • millipedes)
  62. Outline the timeline of diversification for
    arthropods, including 1) time of origin in the fossil record 2) general timing
    of terrestrial invasions.
    • ·
    • First appearance duing the Cambrian explosion

    • ·
    • First animals to invade land ~400 MYA
  63. What are 3 important functional characteristics
    of the chitinous cuticular exoskeleton or arthropods?
    • ·
    • Strong, lightweight material for a supportive
    • exoskeleton but allows mobility

    • ·
    • Varies from very hard to very flexible (flexible
    • joints key to movement)

    • ·
    • Waxy outer layer provides waterproofing (key to
    • terrestrial invasion)
  64. Why is the arthropod exoskeleton important in
    terrestrial environments?
    • ·
    • Provides support for the organism, which is not
    • needed in water

    • ·
    • Provides waterproofing to prevent water loss
  65. Chhitinois cuticle is used to build important
    body structures in arthropods- give 3 examples.
    • ·
    • Wings

    • ·
    • Respiratory structures (tracheal system), gills

    • ·
    • Thin cuticular membranes used to sense
    • vibrations & sounds

    • ·
    • Cuticular structures used to produce sounds

    • ·
    • Chemosensory hairs

    • ·
    • Defensive stings
  66. What are 5 reasons for the success of insects?
    • ·
    • Possession of wings

    • ·
    • Important interactions with plants (pollination,
    • plant-feeding)

    • ·
    • Most diverse groups (but not all insects) with
    • complete metamorphosis

    • ·
    • Complex sensory organs (senses of vision,
    • hearing, olfaction, touch all highly evolved

    • ·
    • parasitism
  67. Insect wings are not appendages, explain. How
    does this differ from the condition seen in other animals with powered flight?
    • ·
    • Wings are not appendages (cuticular extensions
    • of dorsal thorax) which does not forfeit functionality of appendages
  68. What are possible advantages of powered flight?
    • ·
    • Escaping predators

    • ·
    • Colonizing new regions/habitats

    • ·
    • Ability to effectively pollinate plants
  69. Why are insects good pollinators? Which insect
    are the most diverse pollinators? Pollination is a so-called +/+ ecological
    interaction- what is benefit to insects from this interaction?
    • ·
    • They are good pollinators because they can
    • easily fly from plant to plant

    • ·
    • Most diverse pollinators (the big four):
    • coleopteran (beetles), hymenoptera (bees, wasps, ants), Lepidoptera
    • (butterflies, moths), and dipteral (true flies)

    • ·
    • Plants receive fertilization while insects are
    • rewarded with nutrient-rich nectars and pollen
  70. What does complete metamorphosis mean? What are
    the lifestages of an insect with complete metamorphosis? What is a primary
    ecological implication of complete metamorphosis?
    • ·
    • Complete metamorphosis: involves a major
    • morphological change during development (ex. Caterpillar -> butterfly)

    • ·
    • Egg-> larva-> pupa -> adult

    • ·
    • Promotes insect diversification
  71. Do all insects have complete metamorphosis?
    Explain this in phylogenetic terms
    • ·
    • Two other types or metamorphosis

    • o
    • Intermediate: immature “mini-adults” lacking
    • wings

    • o
    • Simple: immature “mini-adults”
  72. What are the different types of insect
    parasites? Explain why parasitism might promote insect species diversification?
    • ·
    • Parasites for animas

    • ·
    • Parasites for other insects

    • ·
    • Parasites for other parasites
  73. What are the 3 primary groups of chelicerate
    arthropods, and the habitat characteristics of each group?
    • ·
    • Horseshoe crabs (marine)

    • ·
    • Pycnogonids (sea-spiders)

    • ·
    • Arachnids (terrestrial)
  74. What are 3 key adaptations for predation seen in
    spiders
    • ·
    • Vision (few)

    • ·
    • Silks (most)

    • ·
    • Venom (~all)
  75. Spider webs are made from silk proteins. Where
    are these proteins produced, and what are some of the biological properties of
    these proteins?
    • ·
    • Abdominal glands (feet of tarantulas)

    • ·
    • Very strong, extensible, and tough material
  76. Why is the mass production of spider silks (for
    human use) difficult? How are researchers overcoming this hurdle?
    • ·
    • Very small amount is produced but researchers
    • are using other animals (ex. Goats) to produce these proteins
  77. Spider venoms evolved in the context of what
    type of prey items? What percentage of spiders are medically dangerous to
    humans? What are some other potential applied beneficial uses of spider venoms?
    • ·
    • Prey item = insects

    • ·
    • Out of 40,000 spider species only 40 are
    • medically dangerous to humans

    • ·
    • Inhibits atrial fibrillation (abnormal heart
    • rhythm)
  78. The brown recluse causes necrotic arachnidism-
    what is this? What is the range of the brown recluse in North America? What is
    the nature of the medical misdiagnosis problem in western North America?
    • ·
    • necrotic arachnidism = kills cells

    • ·
    • brown recluse lives in eastern-central of the US

    • ·
    • misdiagnosis comes from other diseases (ex. Lyme
    • disease) that causes the death of cells
  79. There are 3 over-arching goals to research in
    the Hedin lab- what are these general goals?
    • ·
    • Seek to discover & describe new arachnid
    • species, and understand where these species are found (the who and where of
    • biodiversity)

    • ·
    • Conduct molecular systematic studies to
    • understand “how evolution works”

    • ·
    • Use knowledge gained to inform conservation
    • efforts
  80. What are the important findings for the
    mygalomorph species Atypodies riversi? How do these specific findings relate to
    the more general goals of the Hedin lab?
    • ·
    • How spread out they are in California and the
    • different species living in different areas shows how they have spread out over
    • time
  81. Review the primary differences between
    protostomes and deuterostomes.
    • ·
    • Protostomes: no HOX gene duplication, blastopore
    • becomes mouth, ventral NS

    • ·
    • Deuterostomes: HOX gene duplication, blasstopore
    • becomes anus, dorsal NS
  82. Why do echinoderms fossilize well, how old are
    these fossils, and what is somewhat special about extant versus extinct
    echinoderm diversity?
    • ·
    • Endoskeleton helps echinoderms fossilize well

    • ·
    • Fossils dating back to the Cambrian explosion
  83. How do we know that echinoderms were derived
    from an ancestor with bilateral symmetry? What does echinoderm phylogeny
    suggest about the evolution of body symmetry in echinoderms?
    • ·
    • Larvae of echinoderm show bilateral symmetry
    • suggesting secondarily evolved radial symmetry
  84. Why do mostly radial echinoderms “break the
    rules” regarding the radial/sessile expectations?
    • ·
    • Radial animals tend to be sessile but
    • echinoderms are fairly active animals
  85. What are the unique characteristics of
    echinoderms found in no other animal groups?
    • ·
    • Calcareous endoskeleton

    • ·
    • Water vascular system connected to tube feet

    • ·
    • pedicellariae
  86. Endoskeletons are not developed to the same
    extent in echinoderm groups- provide 2 examples of conditions at opposite ends
    of the spectrum.
    • ·
    • Sand dollar (very hard with more calcareous
    • ossicles) vs sea cucumber (very soft with fewer calcareous ossicles)
  87. Describe the water vascular system; describe how
    tube feet work and their functions.
    • ·
    • Echinoderms
    • move by alternately contracting muscles that force water into the tube feet,
    • causing them to extend and push against the ground, then relaxing to allow the
    • feet to retract

    • ·
    • Tube
    • feet used for: locomotion, food capture, and respiration
  88. Describe digestion, excretion, respiration, and
    circulation in a starfish.
    • ·
    • Digestive system is sometimes incomplete

    • ·
    • No circulatory system

    • ·
    • Respiration trough dermal gills and tube feet

    • ·
    • Direst excretion (osmoconformers)

    • ·
    • Bisexual, typically separate sexes
  89. How do starfish differ from brittle stars?
    • ·
    • Brittle stars:

    • o
    • Arms distinct from central disc which are used
    • directly for locomotion and not tube feet
  90. Define asexual reproduction. Why do we call offspring formed via asexual reproduction
    clones?
    • ·
    • Single parent (no gametes)

    • ·
    • Offspring is genetically identical to one
    • another and parent
  91. What are the “pros & cons” of asexual reproduction?
    • ·
    • Pro- allows rapid increase in numbers of
    • individuals

    • ·
    • Cons- lack of genetic variation in populations
  92. Discuss 2 main types of asexual reproduction found in invertebrate animals, with
    examples.
    • ·
    • Budding- new individuals arise as outgrowth
    • (bud) of parent, develops then detaches from parent (ex. Budding of medusa from
    • polyp in cnidarians)

    • ·
    • Fragmentation- adult breaks into 2 or more
    • parts, each fragment capable of becoming a complete individual via regeneration
    • (ex. Planarians (platyhelminthes), and satfish (echinoderm))
  93. Be able to illustrate a “standard” bisexual, sexually-reproducing life cycle.
    • ·
    • Haploid gametes (fertilization)-> diploid egg
    • (mitosis)-> adults (meiosis)-> gametes
  94. How are sexual gametes formed, and what is the genetic significance of this
    process?
    • ·
    • Meiosis

    • ·
    • 1.) independent assortment of chromosomes 2.)
    • recombination during meiosis results in genetically unique gametes

    • ·
    • Entire population of individuals are genetically
    • variable
  95. What is the evolutionary significance of meiosis?
    • ·
    • Creates offspring that are genetically different
    • from parents and each other
  96. Contrast the dioecious condition to the monoecious condition?
    • ·
    • Monoecious- single individuals with bother M
    • & F sex organs

    • ·
    • Dioecious- 2 different individuals with only one
    • sex organ (M or F)
  97. How does haplodiploidy in hymenopteran insects work?
    • ·
    • Haplodiploidy- qeen bees produce haploid eggs
    • with become drones but if fertilized it becomes a diploid queen or worker bee
  98. Define external fertilization, and explain why such fertilization is expected to be
    less common in terrestrial habitats?
    • ·
    • External fertilization- haploid eggs fertilized
    • outside the F body

    • ·
    • Uses water as a median for gametes to travel to
    • each other
  99. Gametes of marine invertebrates that are external fertilizers face 2 problems- what are
    these?
    • ·
    • How do gametes find each other in the huge ocean

    • ·
    • How do gametes recognize conspecific gametes
  100. Define chemotaxis, and give a specific example of a chemical that causes chemotaxis.
    • ·
    • Chemotaxis- gradient of chemicals secreted by
    • egg that “guides” sperm toward it

    • ·
    • Resact
  101. What is the acrosomal reaction, and how do species-specific proteins come into play
    at this stage?
    • ·
    • Break-down of acrosomal membrane, release of
    • enzymes that digest through egg jelly to egg surface

    • ·
    • Extension of acrosomal process, with
    • species-specific bindin proteins recognized by species-specific egg receptor
    • proteins
  102. Define internal fertilization; explain why such fertilization requires complex adult
    interactions, and why internal fertilization often results in the evolution of
    intromittent organs?
    • ·
    • Internal fertilization- eggs fertilized inside F
    • body

    • ·
    • Involved male-female courtship

    • ·
    • Male intromittent organs used to transfer sperm
    • into female
  103. Define courtship. What are some examples of courtship in insects?
    • ·
    • Courtship- intersexual information exchange –
    • via visual, chemical, and/or mechanical signaling
  104. Be able to define and distinguish oviparous, ovoviviparous, and viviparous
    • ·
    • Oviparous- F lays fertilized eggs into
    • environment

    • ·
    • Ovoviviparous- eggs retained in body during development,
    • embryos deriving nourishment from egg yolk

    • ·
    • Viviparous- fertilized egg retained in body,
    • embryos deriving nourishment directly from mother
  105. Define development. What are some major “landmarks” during animals development?
    • ·
    • Development: continuous process involving
    • progressive changes in an individual from fertilization to maturity

    • ·
    • Zygote subdivides determinants partitioned in
    • blastomeres (cleavage)

    • ·
    • Germ layers form (gastrulation)

    • ·
    • Body organs form, cells interact, differentiate
    • (organogenesis)
  106. Distinguish spiral, determinate from radial, indeterminate cleavage. Which major clades of
    animals have these corresponding types of development
    • ·
    • Radial and indeterminate cleavage is ancestral
    • in bilaterians – found in all seuterostomes, some protosomes

    • ·
    • Spiral and determinate for protostome
    • development
  107. Define gastrulation. What are the characteristics of embryos at the end of
    gastrulation?
    • ·
    • Gastrulation- blastomeres differentiating into
    • specific types of germ cells (forming embryonic germ cell layers)

    • ·
    • At end of gastrulation, embryonic body plan in
    • place:

    • o
    • EGCLs well developed

    • o
    • Body axes developed

    • o
    • Cells have specific positions & cell
    • neighbors
  108. What is the “paradox of nuclear equivalence”?
    • ·
    • Blastomere nuclei are genetically equivalent,
    • but ultimately develop into very different types of cells
  109. What are 2 main factors that influence differential gene expression during animal
    development? Be able to explain these.
    • ·
    • Cytoplasmic determinants

    • ·
    • Cell induction (cell-cell interactions)

    • ·
    • Serve to activate different combinations of
    • genes in different cells
  110. HOX genes are important in animal evolution. As an example, know how the Ubx HOX
    gene impacts wing development (and ultimately wing evolution) in flies.
    • ·
    • HOX genes- transcription factors with 180-bp
    • homeobox binding domain

    • ·
    • Different HOX genes expressedin different cells
    • of developing embryo, regulate the expression (+/-) of many other genes
    • (developmental regulatory genes)

    • ·
    • Ubx expressed in third thoracic segment (T3) of
    • flies, represses expression of a gene which generates wing tissue
  111. What are the basic requirements of all animal cells?
    • ·
    • Input- sugars, amino acids, oxygen

    • ·
    • Output- carbon dioxide, nitrogenous wastes

    • ·
    • Maintain- water, salt balance
  112. How does surface area to volume ratio vary with cell size? Why are animals made up
    of many small cells, versus fewer, large cells?
    • ·
    • The larger a cell the smaller the surface to
    • volume ratio

    • ·
    • The smaller the cells the larger surface area to
    • volume they occupy, large SV ratio necessary for effective materials transport
    • (input & output)
  113. 3 primary factors interact to influence how animals get materials to and from all
    cells in the body- what are these?
    • ·
    • Body organization (cell layer complexity ) ->
    • reflects phylogeny

    • ·
    • Body shape

    • ·
    • Environment (aquatic vs. terrestrial)
  114. How do sponges get materials to cells? What about Cnidaria (examples of a
    diploblastic animal)? Platyhelminthes?
    • ·
    • Sponges are aquatic with porous bodyplan which
    • allows water to flow thru body

    • ·
    • Cnidarians- aquatic with GV cavity sometimes
    • greatly subdivided (ex. Extends into tesntacles) all cells of body in contact
    • with GV fluids or external fluid medium

    • ·
    • Platyhelminthes- branched gut in aquatic or
    • moist terrestrial habitats
  115. What are the constraints of the Sponge/cnidaria “materials exchange” design?
    • ·
    • Must be aquatic, or if terrestrial restricted to
    • moist habitats

    • ·
    • No party of the body can be more than few cell
    • layers thick

    • ·
    • Limited “complexity” with these solutions
  116. What is internalization?
    • ·
    • Internalization- cells exist in internal
    • environments that is different from external environment
  117. What are the 4 major organ systems that most bilaterians possess, and the functions
    of these systems?
    • ·
    • Digestive system- food, salts, water in

    • ·
    • Respiratory system- oxygen in, carbon dioxide
    • out

    • ·
    • Excretory system- nitrogenous wastes out,
    • maintains salt & water balance

    • ·
    • Circulatory system- transport system
  118. Provide an example of an animal with absorptive nutrition. How does such an animal gain
    nutrients?
    • ·
    • Cestodes (platyhelminthes)- lack digestive
    • system

    • ·
    • Absorb organic molecules digested by host
    • digestive system
  119. What are the 3 main modes of ingestive feeding in animals?
    • ·
    • Particulate feeders

    • ·
    • Parasites

    • ·
    • “macroscopic feeders”
  120. What does it mean to feed on particulate matter, what are the 2 primary ways of such
    feeding? What is plankton?
    • ·
    • Particulates- (microscopic organinc “stuff”)
    • suspended in water column

    • ·
    • Suspension feeders and deposit feeders
  121. Suspension feeders use several means to feed- provide an invertebrate animal example.
    Provide an invertebrate animal example for a deposit feeder.
    • ·
    • Suspension- marine annelids (use of flagella or
    • cilia to produce current), barnacles (sweep feeing organ), foragers

    • ·
    • Deposit- marine polychaetes (pass sediment
    • through body removing nutrients)
  122. What are 4 categories of animal “macroscopic feeders”?
    • ·
    • Herbivores

    • ·
    • Fungivores

    • ·
    • Detritivores- eat “dead stuff” (and feces)

    • ·
    • Carnivores
  123. Why are detritivores ecologically important on land? What are 3 “services” provided
    by dung beetles that are valuable in the cattle industry?
    • ·
    • Break down detritus

    • ·
    • Free up chemicals & minderals for future use

    • ·
    • Help in soil formation
  124. Invertebrate animals have evolved many special adaptations for predation- provide 2 specific
    examples.
    • ·
    • Sticky aerial nets- spider webs

    • ·
    • Venoms- for stunning, paralyzing, killing prey
    • (and defense)

    • ·
    • Traps- antlion larvae
  125. Bilaterian digestive systems are regionally-specialized- what are 2 different process that
    occur in different regions of the alimentary canal?
    • ·
    • Mechanical digestion (crushing food, chewing)

    • ·
    • Extravellular chemical digestion
  126. What are the specific functions of animal circulatory (= transport) systems? What
    are the 3 major types of circulatory systems seen in animals?
    • ·
    • Function: to transport respiratory gases,
    • nutrients, excretory products, hormones to/from interstitial fluids

    • ·
    • Types

    • o
    • Lacking (ex. Sponges, cnidarians,
    • platyhelminthes) cells in approximate contact w/ external medium, GV cavity, or
    • branched gut

    • o
    • “closed” circulatory system

    • o
    • “open” circulatory
  127. Some animals (including some triploblasts) actually lack a circulatory system – give
    an example. How is “materials exchange” accomplished in such an animal?
    • ·
    • Ex. Sponges, cnidarians, playhelminthes

    • ·
    • Material exchange from GV cavity or directly
    • into external medium
  128. How does a “closed” circulatory system differ from an “open” circulatory system?
    Which system provides more efficient blood flow?
    • ·
    • Closed- blood plasma circulates in narrow vessels
    • & ultimately to capillaries propelled by heart (blood plasma remains
    • largely separate from interstitial fluid)

    • o
    • More effective

    • ·
    • Open- no distinction between blodd &
    • interstitial fluids (together called hemolymph)
  129. Define external respiration. What are 2 primary characteristic of all metazoan
    reparatory surfaces?
    • ·
    • Exchange of oxygen/carbon dioxide between whole
    • organism & environment

    • ·
    • Commonalities:

    • o
    • Respiratory surfaces characterized by large
    • surface areas

    • o
    • Respiratory surfaces are moist (respiratory
    • gases must diffuse across aqueous boundary)
  130. How does aerial breathing differ from aquatic breathing?
    • ·
    • More oxygen molecules in air (20-40 X more)

    • ·
    • Oxygen molecules diffuse about 10,000 times more
    • rapidly in air than in water

    • ·
    • Aquatic breathers must be efficient at removing
    • oxygen from water, expend more energy doing so
  131. What are the 4 different types of animal respiratory systems discussed in class? Be
    able to discuss how these work, and give specific animal examples for each.
    • ·
    • Cutaneous respiration- gas exchange by direct
    • diffusion across body surface

    • o
    • Ex. Flatworms, earthworms, other very small
    • animals

    • o
    • Only works in aquatic or moist terrestrial
    • habitats

    • o
    • Often used in combination with other types of
    • respiration

    • ·
    • Gills- thin walled extensions (evaginations) of
    • the surface of aquatic animals

    • o
    • Typically highly branched or folded (increases
    • surface area)

    • o
    • Gills either external (facilitates ventilation)
    • or internal (greater protection)

    • ·
    • Lungs- internal air filled sacs with large
    • surface areas, often ventilates

    • o
    • Evolved for respiration on land-> lung
    • internalization related to water conservation in terrestrial habitats

    • ·
    • Tracheal systems- air filled cuticular tubes
    • that branch throughout body of terrestrial arthropods (ex. Insects and some
    • spiders)

    • o
    • Largely supplants gas transport role or
    • circulatory system
  132. Why is lung internalization so important?
    • ·
    • Water conservation for terrestrial living
  133. What are 2 primary functions of excretory systems?
    • ·
    • Maintain salt & water balance (~constant
    • intracellular environment)

    • ·
    • Rid cells & body of toxic nitrogenous wastes
    • resulting from cellular metabloism
  134. Define osmosis. Why does osmosis affect the salt and water balance of intracellular
    environments?
    • ·
    • Osmosis: passive diffusion of water molecules
    • across selectively permeable membrane in response to differing solute
    • concentrations
  135. Be able to distinguish the different osmolarities of extracellular fluid
    enviornments (i.e., hypotonic, isotonic, hypertonic).
    • ·
    • Hypotonic- relatively low solute outside (water
    • enters cell = cell burst)

    • ·
    • Isotonic- equal solute concentration inside
    • & outside

    • ·
    • Hypertonic- relatively high solute outside
    • (water leaves cell = cell shrivel)
  136. How do excretory systems control the osmolarity of extracellular fluids?
    • ·
    • Filtering interstitial fluids

    • ·
    • Active secretion and resorption of specific ions
    • (“solutes”)
  137. What does it mean to say that most marine invertebrates are osmoconformers?
    • ·
    • Osmoconformers- osmolarity of interstitial
    • fluids match that of external aquatic environment
  138. When we talked about invertebrate animals, we discussed several “useful
    biomolecules” (i.e. molecules with potential positive impacts on human
    well-being)/ provide 2 examples of such molecules.
    • ·
    • Sceotrin- (marine natural compound in sponges)
    • inhibits cell motility in a variety of cancer cell lines

    • ·
    • Prialt- (comes from slugs) primary alternative
    • to morphines is non-addictive & anti-tolerant
  139. Why is species “value” best considered “unpredictable”?
    • ·
    • Because no one can guess what we may discover
    • from and organism and the beifits they may hold for us

    • ·
    • Ex. Patent of stable DNA polymerase from
    • thermophilic bacterium is now wothr $200 million per year
  140. What are current and projected levels of species extinction?
    • ·
    • Currently 1,000 times the avg and expected to
    • raise to 10,000
  141. What are the 5 primary causes of species extinction?
    • ·
    • HICOP

    • o
    • Habitat destruction

    • o
    • Invasive species & diseases

    • o
    • Climate change

    • o
    • Over-exploitation

    • o
    • pollution
  142. How large is the human population currently (approximately)? Predicted size in the
    year 2050?
    • ·
    • Currently- ~7 billion

    • ·
    • 2050- 10-12 billion
  143. Define “ecological footprint”.
    • ·
    • Amount of land/shallow sea needed for food,
    • water, housing, energy, transportation, commerce (measure of how consumptive
    • people are…)

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