Psychology Exam 4

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josec.tapia
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47275
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Psychology Exam 4
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2010-11-04 03:10:13
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Ch.7,8,9
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  1. Superordinate Category
    The highest most general level of a concept. The first level in the hierarchical category, Concepts that are broad and general in their description. (Fruit))
  2. Basic Level Category
    Second level or intermediate and seems to be the level that we use most to think about our world. (Oranges)
  3. Subordinate Category
    Third level, lowest level of categorization, which contains concepts that are less general and more specific than those at the basic level.(Blood Oranges)
  4. Formal Concept
    Concept that is based on learned rigid rules that define certain categories of things. Developed as a child first concepts. (a female is a female because it produces eggs but if it doesn't isn't not a female)
  5. Natural Concept
    Concept that develops naturally as we live our lives and experience the world.
  6. Prototype
    Our concept of the most typical member of the category, in essence a summary of all the members of the category.
  7. Exemplar
    Example or a mental representation of an actual instance of a member of a category.
  8. Algorithm
    A method of solving a particular problem that always leads to the correct solution.(Measuring a room for paint)
  9. Heuristic
    A shortcut or rule of thumb that may or may not lead to a correct solution to the problem.(Guess the amount of paint to paint a room)
  10. Functional Fixedness
    Being able to see objects only in their familiar roles.(hammer for pounding, or a box for holding items)
  11. Deductive Reasoning
    Reasoning from the general to the specific.(deduce that because studying leads to good grades your friend melissa makes good grades she must study hard)
  12. Inductive Reasoning
    Reasoning from the specific to the general.(children notice our classmates who did well are the ones who studied the most, we induce studying leads to good grades.)
  13. Availability Heuristic
    A heuristic in which we use the ease with which we can recall instances of an event to help us estimate the frequency of the event.(Picking car travel over plane even tough statistically planes are safer)
  14. Phoneme
    The smallest unit of sound in ones native language.(babbling the basic sounds,a baby)
  15. Morpheme
    Smallest unit of sound in a language that has meaning.(Leads to their first words by the end of the first year, parents saying do you want the toy and baby understanding)
  16. Telegraphic Speech
    20-26 weeks two word sentences that they begin to utter
  17. Mental Age
    The age that reflects the child's mental abilities in comparison to the average child of the same age.
  18. IQ Score
    Intelligence Quotient, ones mental age divided by ones chronological age times 100.
  19. Reliability
    Degree to which a test yields consistent measures of a trait.(test scores should be around the same 6 months apart)
  20. Validity
    Degree to which a test measures the trait that it was designed to measure.(One must show the test actually test intelligence)
  21. Crystallized Intelligence
    Raymond Cattell, abilites that rely on knowledge expertise, and judgement, or accumulation of knowledge.
  22. Fluid Intelligence
    Abilities that rely on info processing skills such as reaction time attention and working memory, speed and efficiency with which we learn new info and solve problems.
  23. Primary Drive
    Such as needing food, water, warmth, motivate us to maintain certain bodily processes at an internal state or equilibrium or homeostasis.
  24. Secondary Drive
    Learned drive that is not directly related to biological needs, not needed to survive, learned through experience.
  25. Extrinsic Motivation
    Motivation that comes from outside of the person.(Peer pressure when drinking to be liked)
  26. Intrinsic Motivation
    Motivation that comes form within the person.(Pride from making a good grade)
  27. Hierarchy of Needs
    Maslow, theory that humans are motivated by different motives some of which take precedence over others.(bottom to top, Physiological needs)
  28. VHM (Ventromedial Hypothalamus)
    A region of the hypothalamus that plays an indirect role in creating a feeling of satiety and then we feel full.
  29. Obese
    Having a body mass index of 30 or over
  30. Anorexia Nervosa
    Eating disorder in which people have an intense fear of gaining weight even though they are actually underweight.
  31. Bulimia Nervosa
    Eating disorder in which people binge on large quantities of food and then throw up to avoid weight gain.
  32. Binge Eating Disorder
    A mental health disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of binge eating, as in bulimia nervosa, but without regular use of compensatory measures to avoid weight gain.(Not bulimia if they don't throw up)
  33. Withdrawal
    An unpleasant physiological stat that results when one stops taking a drug to which he or she has built up a tolerance.
  34. Tolerance
    A condition in which after repeat use more of a drug is needed to achieve the same effect.
  35. James Lange Theory
    Emotion is equal to the pattern of physiological arousal that the person experiences during an emotion.(Emotion is a physiological response to a stimulus)(Walter cannon tried to disprove but later Lange was proven wright)
  36. Mere Exposure Effect
    Idea that the more one is exposed to something the more one grows to like it.
  37. Zygote
    A fertilized egg that has 23 chromosomes.
  38. Germinal Stage
    First 14 days after conception.(stage of development) cell divison, implants itself in the lining of the uterine wall after 5 days the zygote is 100-cell called blastocyst.
  39. Embryonic Stage
    Week 3-8 or stage two, placenta, umbilical cord, amniotic sac, develop and form all major organs, cells specialize most miscarriages and defects occur in this stage.
  40. Fetal Stage
    Stage 3, 9 weeks to birth, at 14 weeks kicking,swallowing,turn head, 24 weeks viability outside the womb, responsive to sound light, and touch during last 3 months.
  41. Down Syndrome
    Genetic birth disorder resulting from an extra 21st chromosome characterized by distinct facial features and a greater likelihood of heart defects and mental retardation.
  42. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
    Birth condition resulting from the mothers chronic use of alcohol during pregnancy that is characterized by facial and limb deformities and mental retardation.(FAS , will result in stupider and lower weight)
  43. Gross Motor Skills
    Motor behavior involving the large muscles of the body.
  44. Fine Motor Skills
    Motor skills involving the small muscles of the body.
  45. Schema
    A mental idea concept or thought.
  46. Assimilation
    Process by which an existing schema is used to understand something new in the environment.
  47. Accommodation
    Process by which a schema is changed modified or created a new in order to understand something new in the environment.
  48. Sensorimotor Operation
    Piaget's First cognitive stage, birth to 2 years, they aquire knowledge through senses and motor abilities to develop schemas.
  49. Preoperational Operation
    Second Stage- development is characterized by the use of symbols and illogical thought age from 2-7 year of age, showing juice baby wants it.
  50. Concrete Operation
    Third Stage- around age 6 or 7-12 characterized by logical though
  51. Formal
    Final Stage- ability to engage in abstract though, imagine hypothesize what may been ....teen to adult ages.
  52. Zone Of Proximal Development
    Vygotsky- the gap between what a child is already able to do and what they aren't yet able to do.
  53. Temperament
    Persons general pattern of attention, arousal and mood that is evident at birth.
  54. Separation Anxiety
    Fear an infant expresses when separated from the major caretaker.
  55. Stranger Anxiety
    Distress an infant expresses when faced with unfamiliar people.
  56. Authoritarian Parent
    Parenting style characterized by high levels of control and low levels of affection.
  57. Authoritative Parent
    Parenting style characterized by moderate levels of control and affection.
  58. Permissive Parent
    A Parenting style characterized by moderate levels of affection but low levels of control.
  59. Menarche
    Girls first menstruation usually around age 10.
  60. Menopause
    Period when a female stops menstruating and is no longer fertile around age 50.
  61. Imaginary Audience
    belief that everyone is watching what they do by adolescents.
  62. Moratorium
    Marcia- an identity status in which the individual actively explores personal values. (Stage 2)
  63. Foreclosure
    • Marcia and Erikson an identity state in which a
    • commitment to personal values that have been adequately explored is attained.(person
    • has made a commitment to an identity that may not be stable over the rest of
    • their life they go with what people want to lessin the stress of moratorium)
  64. Kubler-Ross's Stages Of Death
    • 1) Denial
    • 2) Anger
    • 3) Bargaining
    • 4) Depression
    • 5) Acceptance
  65. Erik Erikson's Psychosocial Stages Of Development
    • 1) Diffusion
    • 2) Moratorium
    • 3) Foreclosure
    • 4) Achievement

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