IS 2020.txt

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IS 2020.txt
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IS 2020 exam 2
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  1. Synchronous Communications
    Receiver gets message instantaneously
  2. Asynchronous communications
    Receiver gets message after some delay
  3. Simplex Channel
    Transmits data in only one direction
  4. Half-duplex channel
    Transmits data in either direction, but not simultaneously
  5. Full-duplex channel
    Permits data transmission in both directions at the same time\
  6. Channel bandwidth
    Rate at which data is exchanged (bps)
  7. Broadband Communications
    A telecommunications system in which a very high rate of data exchange is possible
  8. Telecommunications media
    Categories: guided transmission media and wireless
  9. Guided Transmission media types
    Available in many types
  10. Twisted-pair wire
    Classified by category: category 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 5E, 6 (white noise)
  11. Coaxial Cable
    Offers cleaner and crisper data transmission(less noise)) that twisted-pair wire
  12. Fiber-Optic Cables
    Transmits signals with light beams
  13. Broadband over power lines
    Potential problem: transmitting data over unshielded power lines can interfere with both amateur (ham) radio broadcasts and police and fire radios
  14. Wireless Communications options
    Wireless transmission involves the broadcast of communications in one of three frequency ranges (radio, Microwaves, or infrared frequencies)
  15. Near Field Communication (NFC)
    Short-range wireless connectivity technology designed for cell phones and credit cards
  16. Bluetooth
    Wireless communications specification that describes how cell phones, computers, personal digital assistants, etc.., can be interconnected
  17. Ultra wideband (UWB)
    Transmits large amounts of digital data over short distances of up to 30 feet
  18. Infrared Transmission
    Sends signals at a frequency of 300 GHz and above
  19. Zigbee
    Form of wireless communications frequently used in security systems and heating and cooling control systems
  20. Wi-Fi
    Wireless telecommunications technology brand owned by the Wi-Fi Alliance
  21. Wireless Access Point
    Consists of a transmitter with an antenna, receives the signal, and decodes it
  22. Wi-Fi Access points
    Have maximum range of about 300 feet outdoors and 100 feet with a dry-walled building
  23. Microwave transmission
    High-frequency (300 MHz-300GHz) signal sent through the air
  24. Satellite
    Geostationary satellite, low earth orbit (LEO) satellite, very small operture terminal (VSAT)
  25. Wireless mesh
    A way to route communications between network nodes by allowing for continuous connections and reconfig.Uses multiples Wi-Fi access points to link a series of interconnected local area networks
  26. 3G wireless communications
    Useful for business travelers, people on the go, and people who need to get or stay connected
  27. 4G wireless communications
    Will provide increased data transmission rates in the 20-40 mbps range
  28. Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX)
    Set of IEEE 802.16 wireless metropolitan area network standards
  29. Digital Signal
    Represents bits
  30. Analog Signal
    Variable signal, continuous in both time and amplitude so that any small fluctuations is the signal are meaningful
  31. Computer Network
    Consists of communications media, devices and software needed to connect two or more computer systems or devices. Can transmit and receive information to improve organizational effectiveness and efficiency
  32. Personal area networks (PAN)
    Supports interconnection of information technology within a range of about 33 feet
  33. Local area network (LAN)
    Connects computer systems and devices within a small area
  34. Metropolitan area network (MAN)
    Connects users and their devices in a geographical area that spans a campus or city
  35. Wide Area Network (WAN)
    Ties together large geographic regions
  36. Centralized processing
    All processing occurs in a single location or facility
  37. Decentralized processing
    Processing devices are placed at various remote locations
  38. Distributed processing
    Processing devices are places at remote locations but are connected to each other via a network
  39. File server systems
    Users can share data through file server computing
  40. Client/server
    Architecture , where Multiple computer platforms are dedicated to special functions
  41. Client
    Any computer that sends messages requesting services from the servers on the network
  42. Database server
    Sends only the data that satisfies a specific query, not the entire file
  43. Modems
    Modulation/demodulation devices
  44. Multiplexes
    Combines data from multiple data sources into a single output signal that carries multiple channels
  45. Front-end processors
    Special-purpose computers that manage communications to and from a computer system
  46. Private branch exchange (PBX)
    Telephone switching exchange that serves a single organization
  47. Switch
    Uses the physical device address in each incoming message on the network
  48. Bridge
    Connects one LAN to another LAN that used the same telecommunications protocol
  49. Router
    Forwards data packets across two or more distinct networks toward their destinations
  50. Gateway
    Serves as an entrance to another network
  51. Network operating System (NOS)
    System software that controls the computer systems and devices on a network
  52. Network management software
    Protects software from being copied, modified, or downloaded illegally; performs error control to locate telecommunications errors and potential network problems
  53. Encryption
    Converting an original message into a form that can only be understood by the intended receiver
  54. Key
    Variable value that is applied (using an algorithm) to a set of unencrypted text to produce encrypted text to decrypt encrypted text
  55. Wired equivalent privacy (WEP)
    Used encryption based on 64-bit key, which has be upgraded to a 128-bit key
  56. Wi-Fi protected access (WPA)
    Security protocol that offers significantly improved protection over WEP
  57. War Driving
    Involves hackers driving around with a laptop and antenna trying to detect insecure wireless access points
  58. Data Encryption Standard (DES)
    Early data encryption standard developed in the 1970�s that used a 56-bit private key algorithm
  59. Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)
    Extremely strong data encryption standard based on a key size of 128-bits, 192 bits, or 256 bits
  60. Virtual Private Network (VPN)
    Private network that used public network (usually the internet) to connect to multiple remote locations; supports secure, encrypted connections between a company�s private network and remote users
  61. Cellular phones services
    Operate using radio waves to provide two-way communications
  62. Picocell
    Miniature cellular base station designed to serve a very small area such as part of a floor inside a building
  63. Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) service
    Telecommunications service that delivers high-speed internet access over existing phone lines
  64. Voice over Internet Protocol VoIP) services
    Enables voice conversations to be converted into packets of data that can be sent over a data network; network managers can route phone calls and fax transmissions over the same network they use for data
  65. Voicemail
    Users can send, receive, and store verbal messages for and from other people around the world
  66. Reverse 911 services
    Delivers emergency notifications to users in a selected geographical area
  67. Voice-to-text services
    Convert speech to text so that you can manage voice mails more effectively
  68. DSL Modem
    Enables each computer in the network to access the internet
  69. Firewall
    Filters the information coming from the Internet into your network
  70. Electronic Document Distribution
    Send/receive documents in a digital form w/out printing; faster
  71. Call Centers
    Physical location where an organization handles customer and other telephone calls
  72. Telecommuters
    Need to be strongly self-motivated, organized, and focused on their tasks with minimal supervision
  73. Electronic Data Interchange (EDI)
    Connecting corporate computers among organizations; links computers of customers, manufacturers, suppliers
  74. Public Network Services
    Gives personal computer users access to vast database, the internet, and other services: for fees
  75. Distance Learning
    Use of telecommunications to extend the classroom
  76. Shared Workspace
    Common work area where colleagues can share documents, issues, models, schedules, spreadsheets, and all forms of information
  77. Unified Communications
    Provides a simple and consistent user experience across all types of communications
  78. Global positioning systems applications
    Global navigation satellite systems employing over two dozen satellite in orbit at roughly 12,500 miles above the earth
  79. Specialized Services
    Include professional legal, patent, and technical information (Nike+ iPod sport kits)
  80. Telecommunications and networks
    Creating profound changes in business because they remove the barriers of time and distance
  81. Communications
    Can be classified as synchronous and asynchronous
  82. Telecommunications media can physically connect data communications devices
    -guided transmission media and wireless media
  83. Transborder data flow
    Electronic flow of data across international and global boundaries
  84. Client/server system
    Network that connects a user�s computer (a client) to one or more host computers (servers)
  85. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
    Transport-layer protocol that most internet applications use with IP
  86. Backbone
    One of the internet�s high-speed, long-distance communications links
  87. Uniform Resource Locator (URL)
    an assigned address on the internet for each computer
  88. Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN)
    Responsible for managing IP address and Internet domain names; has authority to resolve domain name disputes
  89. Cyber-squatters
    Register domain names in the hope of selling them to corporations or people
  90. Internet Service Providers (ISP)
    Any company that provides individuals or organizations with access to the internet for a fee
  91. World Wide Web (WWW)
    Collections of tens of millions of server computers that work together as one in an internet
  92. Hyperlink
    Highlighted text or graphics in a web document that, when clicked, opens a new web page
  93. Web Browser
    Web client software such as internet explorer, firefox, and safari used to view web pages
  94. Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)
    Standard page description language for web pages
  95. HTML tags
    Let the browser know how to format text
  96. Extensible Markup Language (XML)
    Markup language for web documents containing structured information
  97. Cascading style Sheet (CSS)
    File or portion of an HTML file that defines the visual appearance of content in a web page
  98. Web 2.0
    The web as a computing platform that supports software applications and the sharing of information
  99. Rich Internet Application
    Software that has the functionality and complexity of traditional application software, but runs in a Web browser and does not require local installation
  100. Java
    Object-oriented programming language from Sun Microsystems based on C++; allows small programs (applets) to be embedded with an HTML document
  101. Other languages
    AJAX (asynchronous JavaScript and XML), PHP (hypertext preprocessor), Adobe flash and Microsoft Silverlight
  102. Mash-up
    Process of mixing two or more hip-hop songs into one song
  103. Web Services
    Standards and tools that streamline and simplify communication among web sites
  104. XML
    The key to web services
  105. SOAP
    Simple Object Access Protocol
  106. WSDL
    Web Services Description Language
  107. UDDI
    Universal Discovery Description and Integration
  108. Commercial Internet Exchange (CIX) Association
    1991; allows businesses to connect to the internet
  109. Instant Messaging
    Online, real-time communication between two or more people who are connected to the internet
  110. Telnet
    Network protocol that enables users to log on to networks remotely over the internet
  111. Secure Shell (SSH)
    Provides Telnet functionality through a more secure connection
  112. File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
    Supports file transfers between a host and a remote computer
  113. Web log
    Web site that people create and use to write about their observations, experiences, and feelings on a wide range of topics
  114. Podcast
    Audio broadcast over the internet; audio blog
  115. Usenet
    Uses email to provide a centralized news service; newsgroups; protocol that describes how groups of messages can be stored on and sent between computers
  116. Internet Relay Chat (IRC)
    Requires participants to type their conversation rather than speak
  117. Internet phone service
    Relatively inexpensive, especially for international calls
  118. Internet videoconferencing
    Supports both voice and visual communications
  119. Internet Office
    Website that contains files, phone numbers, email, addresses, calendars, and more; portable
  120. Internet
    Can provided critical information during times of disaster; can be used to translate; facilitates distance learning
  121. Intranet
    Internal corporate network built using internet and WWW standards and technologies
  122. Extranet
    Network that links selected resources of the intranet of a company with its customers, suppliers, or other business partners
  123. Net Issues
    Management issues, service and speed issues, privacy, fraud, security, and unauthorized internet sites
  124. Internet Protocol (IP)
    the set of conventions used to pass packets from one host to another
  125. The Web
    Collection of tens of millions of servers that work together as one in an internet service
  126. System Development Team
    Development Team, project, project manager, stakeholders, users, system dev. Specialists
  127. SDLC
    Investigation, analysis, design, implementation, and maintenance and review
  128. Advantages of SDLC
    Provides for maximum management control; creates considerable system documentation; produces many intermediate products review
  129. Reasons to initiate system dev. Projects
    Mergers, acquisitions, fed. Regulations, etc
  130. Information systems planning
    Translating strategic and organizational goals into systems development initiatives
  131. Aligning organizational goals and IS goals
    Critical for successful systems development effort
  132. Developing a competitive advantage
    Creative analysis, critical analysis
  133. Mission-critical systems
    Play pivotal role in organization�s continued operations and goal attainment
  134. Critical success factors (CSF�s)
    Factors essential to success of a functional area of an organization
  135. Performance Objectives
    Output quality or usefulness; output accuracy; speed at which output is produced; scalability of resulting system; risk of the system.
  136. Cost Objectives
    Development costs; costs of uniqueness of system application; fixed investments in hardware and related equipment; ongoing operating costs
  137. Systems investigation
    Identifies problems and opportunities and considers them in light of business goals
  138. Systems Analysis
    Studies existing systems and work processes to identify strengths, weaknesses, and opportunites for improvement
  139. Systems Design
    Defines how the information system will do what it must do to obtain the problem�s solution
  140. Systems Implementation
    Creates or acquires various system components detailed in systems design, assembles them, and places new or modified system into operation
  141. Systems maintenance and review
    Ensures the system so that it continues to meet; modifies the system so that it continues to meet changing business needs
  142. Prototyping
    An iterative approach
  143. Operational prototype
    Prototype that work; accesses real data files, edits input data, makes necessary computations and comparisons, and produces real output
  144. Nonoperational prototype
    A mock-up or model; includes output and input specifications and formats
  145. Rapid Application Development (RAD)
    Employs tools, techniques, and methodologies designed to speed application development; makes extensive use of the joint application development (JAD); agile development; extreme programming (XP)
  146. End-user systems development
    Systems development project in which business managers and users assume the primary effort
  147. Successful systems development
    Delivers a system that meets user and organization needs on time and within budget
  148. Critical for most systems development projects
    Getting users and stakeholders involved
  149. Quality of project planning
    The bigger the project, the more likely that poor planning will lead to significant problems
  150. Capability Maturity Model (CMM)
    One way to measure organization experience
  151. Project schedule
    Detailed description of what is to be done
  152. Project milestone
    Critical date for completion of a major part of the project
  153. Project deadline
    Date that the entire project is to be completed and operational
  154. Critical path
    Activities that, if delayed, would delay the entire project
  155. Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)
    Creates three times estimates for an activity (shortest possible time, most likely time, longest possible time)
  156. Gantt chart
    Graphical took used for planning, monitoring, and coordinating projects
  157. Computer-Aided Software Engineering (CASE) tools
    Automate many tasks required in a systems development effort; encourage adherence to SDLC
  158. Object Oriented Systems Development
    Combines logic of systems development life cycle with power of object development life cycle with power of object-oriented modeling and programming
  159. OOSD tasks
    Identify potential problems and opportunities that would be appropriate for OO approach; define user requirements; design system; program or modify modules; user evaluation; periodic review and modification
  160. Systems request form
    Submitted by someone who wants IS department to initiate systems investigation
  161. Technical Feasibility
    Bleeding edge
  162. Economic Feasibility
    Is it worth it
  163. Net Present value
    What will it be worth in 10 yrs
  164. Legal Feasibility
  165. Operational feasibility
    Is it going to work? In our environment
  166. Schedule Feasibility
    Can it even be scheduled to happen?
  167. Object-oriented approach
    Can be used during all phases of systems development
  168. Use Case diagram
    Part of the Unified Modeling Language (UML) that is used in object-oriented systems Development
  169. Systems Investigation Report
    Summarizes results of systems investigation; summarizes the process of feasibility analysis; recommends course of action; reviewed
  170. System Analysis
    Gathering data on existing system; determines requirements for new systems; considers alternative; investigates feasibility of solutions : prioritized list of systems requirements
  171. Formalized analysis procedure
    Assembling participants for systems analysis; collecting and analyzing data and requirements; preparing a report on existing system, new system requirements, and project priorities
  172. Systems analysis team develops:
    List of objectives and activities; deadlines; statement of resources required; major milestones
  173. Data Collection
    Interviews, direct observation, questionnaires
  174. Data Analysis
    Data modeling; activity modeling; application flowcharts; grid charts; Case tools
  175. Requirements Analysis
    • Determination of user, stakeholder, and organizational needs
    • (asking directly, critical success factors-csf, IS plan, screen + report layout, requirements analysis tools)
  176. Object-Oriented System Analysis
    Identity problems or potential opportunities; identity key participants and collect data; with the OO approach a class is used to describe different types of objects
  177. Systems Analysis Report
    Strengths and weaknesses of existing systems from a stakeholder�s perspective; user/stakeholder requirements for new system; organizational requirements for new system; description of what new information system should do to solve the problem
  178. Logical design
    Describes functional requirements of a systems
  179. Physical design
    Specifies the characteristics of the system components necessary to put the logical design into action
  180. Object-Oriented Design
    Considers the sequence of events that must happen for the system to function correctly
  181. Interface Design and Controls
    Characteristics: sign-on procedure, interactive processing, help facility, lookup tables, restart procedure
  182. Design of System Security and Controls
    Preventing, detecting, and correcting errors; disaster planning and recovery; systems controls (closed/open/deterrence)
  183. Environmental Design Considerations
    Green design; involves systems development efforts that slash power consumption, require less physical space, and result in systems that can be disposed in a way that doesn�t negatively affect the environment
  184. Request for Proposal (RFP)
    Document that specifies required resources such as hardware and software in detail
  185. Financial options
    Purchase, lease, rent
  186. Evaluation Techniques
    Groups consensus; cost/benefit analysis; benchmark tests; point evaluation
  187. Freezing Design Specifications
    User agrees in writing that the design is acceptable
  188. The Contract
    Vender provide standard contracts to protect themselves (request for proposal)
  189. Design Report
    Primary result of systems designs; reflects decisions made and prepares the way for systems implementation
  190. System Implementation
    Hardware acquisition; programming and software acquisition or development; user preparation; hiring and training of personnel; site and data preparation; installation, testing, start-up, and user acceptance
  191. Make �or � buy Decision
    Whether to obtain software from external or internal sources
  192. Externally acquired software and software as a Service (SaaS)
    Commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) development process
  193. In-House developed software
    CASE and object-oriented approaches; cross-platform development; integrated development environment
  194. Database
    A blend of hardware and software
  195. Virtual databases and database as a service (DaaS)
    Popular ways to acquire database capabilities
  196. User Preparation
    Readying managers, decision makers, employees, other users, and stakeholders for new systems; implementation
  197. Data preparation
    Data conversion; ensures all files and databases are ready to be used with new computer software and systems
  198. Testing
    Unit, system, volume, integration, acceptance, alpha, beta testing.
  199. Approaches
    Direct plunge, direct cutover, piecemeal, pilot, parallel
  200. User Acceptance
    Formal agreement signed by user that states that a phase of installation or the complete systems is approved
  201. System operation
    Use of a new or modified system
  202. Systems maintenance
    Checking, changing, and enhancing the system to make it more useful in achieving user and organizational goals
  203. Reasons for Maintenance
    Changes in process, bugs, errors, technical or hardware problems, corporate mergers and acquisitions, government regulations
  204. Slipstream upgrade maintenance
    Usually requires recompiling all the code
  205. Patch Maintenance
    Minor change to correct a problem
  206. Release Maintenance
    Significant program change
  207. Version Maintenance
    Major program change
  208. Maintenance Team
    Responsible for modifying, fixing, and updating existing software
  209. Maintenance function
    Becoming more automated
  210. Systems review
    Final step of systems development; analyzes systems to make sure that they are operating as intended
  211. Event-driven review
    Triggered by a problem or opportunity
  212. Time-Driven Review
    Performed after a specified amount of time
  213. Monitoring the system
    Number of errors encountered, amount of memory, amount of processing or CPU time needed, other problems.
  214. System performance Products
    Software that measures all components of the computer-based information system
  215. System Design
    To prepare detailed design needs for a new system
  216. Disaster Recovery
    Important aspect of systems designs
  217. Cross-platform development and integrated development environments (IDEs)
    Make software development easier and more thorough
  218. Telecommunications medium
    Any material substance that carries an electronic signal and serves as an interface between a sending device and a receiving device
  219. Telecommunications Protocol
    A set of rules that governs the exchange of information over a communications medium
  220. Internet
    A collection of interconnected networks, all freely exchanging information
  221. Tunneling
    • The process by which VPNs transfer information by encapsulating traffic in IP packets over the internet
    • Stakeholders
    • People who, either themselves r through the organization they represent, ultimately benefit from the systems development project
  222. Systems analyst
    A professional who specialized in analyzing and designing business systems
  223. Programmer
    A specialist responsible for modifying or developing programs to satisfy user requirements

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