Fluid and electrolytes

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Fluid and electrolytes
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2010-01-22 13:19:10
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fluid and electrolytes Nursing 302
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  1. The average infant has_______________of body weight in water
    80%
  2. Tell me three ways a health adult loses fluids
    kidneys 60%, intestines 4%, skin 8% insensible loss 28%
  3. Name the fluid compartments
    • intercellular
    • extracellurlar-intravascular, interstitial, transcellular
  4. The average older adult has ______ of body weight in water
    40%
  5. What percent of fluid is in the ICF?
    2/3
  6. T/f renal failure and long term steriod use may result in FVE
    True
  7. T/F isotonic FVE is the result of excessive ECF?
    TRUE
  8. List 3 patients who are at risk for FVD resulting from a lack of intake
    • chemically or physically restrained
    • dementia, depressed
    • anorexia
    • eating disorders
    • elderly (decreased thirst center activation, inabliity to get up)
  9. when does the nurse need to provide oral care?
    as needed. May be a much as every hour for a fluid deficit patient
  10. what does the nurse need to record as output?
    NG suction, chest tubes, emesis, urine, hemovac, JP drain, wound vac
  11. What does the nurse need to record as input?
    • PO-ice, popsicles, tube feeding, tube flushes,
    • IV
    • irrigations
  12. T/F the hematocrit will be elevated with a fluid volume deficit
    true
  13. What are important factors about obtaining weights?
    Same time, same scale, same attire
  14. What is one of the most valuable pieces of assessment information concerning fluid volume?
    Weight
  15. The average adult has _____ of body weight in water
    60%
  16. Describe diffusion
    free passage of solutes throughout a solvent making the solutes evenly distributed
  17. an isotonic solution ______
    has the same concentration of particles as plasma
  18. Describe osmosis
    water passes from an area of lesser solute concentration to an area of greater concentration
  19. a hypertonic solution is a ______________
    greater concentration of particles than to plasma
  20. Describe the action of ADH
    increases permeability of distal tubules of kidneys resulting in more water being reabsorbed and less urine output
  21. How is the thirst mechanism activated?
    Decreases in volume or increase in osmolality stimulate osmoreceptors in hypothalamus
  22. Name 4 organs systems that play a role in fluid homeostasis
    Kidneys, CV, lungs, adrenal glands, thyroid, parathyroid, GI, CNS
  23. What does sodium do?
    • Regulates osmolality
    • balances water volume in the body
    • promotes transmission of nerve impulses to muscles and tissues
    • helps with acid base balance
  24. What assessment would you expect with fluid deficits
    • CV-thready pulse, tachy, hypotension, flat neck veins
    • resp--tachypnea
    • renal decreased urine output, increased sp.gravity
    • neuro restless, head ache, lethargy, coma
    • skin dry poor turgor, tenting, dry mucous membranes,
    • Gi constipation, thirst, weight loss
  25. T/f water facilitates metabolism and chemical functioning
    true
  26. list three nursing diagnosis for PT with fluid volume excess
  27. what nursing assessment can the nurse expect to find in a FVE patient?
    • CV-tachy, NVD hypertension? Boudning pulse
    • resp crackles, dyspnea, tachypnea
    • neuro altered LOC, h/a visual disturbances, paresthesis
    • skin pale, coll, pitting edema
    • GU decrease sp gravity
    • pale urine
  28. what is colloid osmotic pressure?
    opposes hydrostatic pressure. Holds the fluids in the vascular compartments to maintain vascular volume. Many time referred to as the pulling pressure. Proteins are need to maintain
  29. what is hydrostatic pressure?
    • Pressure a fluid exerts in a closed system.
    • many times referred to as the "pushing" pressure
  30. Filtration is _____
    the movement of fluids and solutes throught a membrane from higher to lower pressure
  31. What is active transport?
    • Movement of substances in and out of cells that requires energy
    • ie. sodium potassium pump
  32. what are anions? what charge do they carry?
    • chloride, bicarbonate, phosphorus
    • negative
  33. What are the cations/ What charge do they carry?
    • Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium
    • Positive
  34. What are the goals in dehydration treatment?
    • Restore fluid volume
    • replace electrolytes
    • eliminate the cause
  35. What is the action of aldosterone?
    • Promotes Na retention resulting in retained Na and water
    • will increase the ECF volume and increase blood pressure
  36. What is example of hypertonic fluid volume deficit?
    Ketacidosis, diabetes insipidus, excessive perspiration
  37. what people are prone to isotonic fluid volume deficit?
    NVD Ng tube to suction, inability to access fluids, npo
  38. List 3 cause of isontoic fluid volume deficit
    • increase GI output
    • increase GU output
    • decreased intake
  39. T/f water facilitates metabolism and chemical functioning
    true
  40. Renin is secreted from _____
    juxatoglomerular in the kidneys
  41. What is hypertonic flud volume deficit?
    Amount of fluids lost is greater than the amount of electrolyte loss
  42. From where is ADH secreted?
    Posterior pituitary
  43. What role do proteins play in fluid balance?
    proteins maintain colloid osmotic pressure
  44. What are the 2 actions of ACE
    • allows conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II
    • inactivates bradykinens
  45. Renin stimulates
    angiotensin I
  46. What is needed to convert angiotensin I to angiotensin II?
    angiotensin coverting enzyme ACE
  47. what is meant by third spacing fluid shift?
    shift of body fluids into the potential body spaces
  48. Electrolytes are generally measured in _______?
    milliequivalents
  49. what are ions?
    a substance than when dissolved in water carry an electric charge or current
  50. what is hypovolemia?
    decrease in ECF-portion of water to electrolytes is near normal
  51. what is hypervolemia?
    excessive retion of water and Na in the ECF
  52. edema is -------
    excessive ECF accumulates in the interstitial spaces
  53. a hypotonic solution is_______--
    lesser concentration of particles than that of plasma
  54. why are electrolytes important?
    • regulate fluid balance
    • assist with acid base balance
    • facilitate enzyme reactions
    • balance neuromuscular functioning
  55. tell me three sources of fluids for the body
    • food 30%
    • liquids 60%
    • metabolism 10%
  56. what percent of fluid is in the ECF?
    1/3

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