Genes and Genomes

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Genes and Genomes
2010-11-04 16:04:49

Intro to Genes and Genomes CH2
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  1. Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
  2. Cell Structure of Prokaryotes
    • Bacteria, archaea
    • small (10nanometer-10micrometers)
    • no nucleus; DNA located in the cytoplasm. Lack membrane-bound organelles
  3. Cell Structure of Eukaryotes
    • Protists, fungi, plant, animal cells
    • large 10-100 micrometer
    • DNA enclosed in a membrane-bound nucleus.
    • Many organelles
  4. Plasma membrane (Eukaryotic)
    • Phosholipid bilayer with proteins on the surface
    • seperates inside of cell from outside
    • Selective barrier
    • regulates transport in and out of cells
  5. Cytoplasm (Eukaryotic)
    • Region between nucleus and Plasma membrane (PM)
    • The cytoplasm is a thick, clear liquid residing between the cell membrane holding organelles.
    • most cellular activities occur, such as many metabolic pathways including glycolysis, and processes such as cell division.
  6. Mitochondria (Eukaryotic) {9}
    • a mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in most eukaryotic cells.
    • 0.5 to 10 micrometers (μm) in diameter
    • "cellular power plants" because they generate most of the cell's supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), used as a source of chemical energy.
    • signaling, cellular differentiation, cell death, and the control of the cell cycle and cell growth.
  7. Ribosome (Eukaryotic) {3}
    • Ribosomes are the components of cells that make proteins from all amino acids.
    • central dogma," is that DNA is used to make RNA, which, in turn, is used to make protein.
    • Ribosomes then read the information in this RNA and use it to create proteins. This process is known as translation
    • Ribosomes are divided into two subunits, one larger than the other. The
    • smaller subunit binds to the mRNA, while the larger subunit binds to
    • the tRNA and the amino acids
  8. Rough ER {5}
    • Protein synthesis
    • studded with protein-manufacturing ribosomes giving it a "rough" appearance
    • A ribosome only binds to the ER once it begins to synthesize a protein destined for the secretory pathway.[
  9. smooth ER {8}
    • Membrane system w/o ribosomes
    • synthesize lipids and steroids, metabolize carbohydrates and steroids, and regulate calcium concentration, drug detoxification, and attachment of receptors on cell membrane proteins
  10. Golgi Apparatus {6}
    • Smooth membraneous stacks
    • Makes lysosomes ;sugar gets put on their protein
    • process and package macromolecules, such as proteins and lipids, after their synthesis and before they make their way to their destination; it is particularly important in the processing of proteins for secretion. The Golgi apparatus forms a part of the cellular endomembrane system.
  11. Lysosome {12}
    • Vesicle and digestive enzymes; intracellular digestion "cell stomach"
    • cellular organelles which contain acid hydrolase enzymes to break up waste materials and cellular debris
    • digest excess or worn-out organelles, food particles, and engulfed viruses or bacteria
    • use with vacuoles and dispense their enzymes into the vacuoles, digesting their contents
  12. Peroxisome
    • Breaks down H2O2, detoxification
    • breakdown of very long chain fatty acids through beta-oxidation.
    • In animal cells, the very long fatty acids are converted to medium
    • chain fatty acids, which are subsequently shuttled to mitochondria where
    • they are eventually broken down to carbon dioxide and water.
  13. Microtubles
    • components of the cytoskeleton. form centrioles, made of Tubulin protein structures. They have a diameter of 25 nm
    • and length varying from 200 nanometers to 25 micrometers.
    • structural components within cells involved in mitosis, cytokinesis, and vesicular transport
  14. Microfilaments
    • Involved in muscle contraction: MOVEMENT
    • (or actin filaments) are the thinnest filaments of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of all eukaryotic cells. These linear polymers of actin subunits are flexible and relatively strong
    • functioning in (a) cell crawling, amoeboid movement, and changes in cell shape, where one end of the actin filament elongates while the other end contractile,
  15. Intermediate filaments
    • one of the 3 cytoskeleton components, The middle size
    • They may stabilize organelles, like the
    • nucleus, or they may be involved in specialized junctions
  16. Centrioles{13}
    • barrel-shaped cell structure,composed of nine triplets of microtubules
    • involved in the organization of the mitotic spindle and in the completion of cytokinesis.
  17. Cilia
    • These whiplike appendages extend from the surface of many types of eukaryotic cells.
    • Cilia and flagella move liquid past the surface of the cell.
    • For single cells, such as sperm, this enables them to swim.
  18. Flagella
    a tail-like projection that protrudes from the cell body of certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, and functions in locomotion.
  19. Nucleus {2}
    • a membrane enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
    • contains most of the cell's genetic material, organized as multiple long linear DNA molecules in complex with a large variety of proteins, such as histones, to form chromosomes.
    • the control center of the cell.
    • The largest organelle ; double membrane with pores
  20. Nuclear Envelope
    a double lipid bilayer that encloses the genetic material in eukaryotic cells. The nuclear envelope also serves as the physical barrier, separating the contents of the nucleus (DNA in particular) from the cytosol (cytoplasm). Many nuclear pores are inserted in the nuclear envelope, which facilitate and regulate the exchange of materials (proteins such as transcription factors, and RNA) between the nucleus and the cytoplasm.
  21. Nucleolus (1)
    a non-membrane bound structure[1] composed of proteins and nucleic acids found within the nucleus. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is transcribed and assembled within the nucleolus.
  22. Chromatin
    • the combination of DNA, histone proteins, and other proteins that makes up chromosomes.
    • found inside the nuclei of eukaryotic cells.
    • divided between heterochromatin (condensed) and euchromatin (extended) forms.
    • package DNA into a smaller volume to fit in the cell, to strengthen the DNA to allow mitosis and meiosis, and to control gene expression and DNA replication.
    • The difference is that chromatin is unfolded, extended
    • DNA where as chromosomes are condensed DNA. Chromosomes are condensed
    • chromatin and chromatin is unfolded chromosomes.
  23. Central Vacuole (plant)
    • a membrane bound organelle for Storage
    • stores water
    • Isolating materials that might be harmful or a threat to the cell
    • Containing waste products
    • Maintaining internal hydrostatic pressure or turgor within the cell
    • Maintaining an acidic internal pH
    • Containing small molecules
    • Exporting unwanted substances from the cell
  24. Chloroplast (plant)
    • conduct photosynthesis. Chloroplasts capture light energy to conserve free energy in the form of ATP and reduce NADP to NADPH through a complex set of processes called photosynthesis.
    • chloros, which means green, and plast, which means form or entity
  25. DNA - Deoxyribonucleic acid
    • Building blocks= nucleotides
    • Nucleotides = sugar and phospate and nitrogenous base
    • sugar= deoxyribose
    • Base= Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine, Guanine
  26. Deoxyribose = sugar
    • 5 carbon sugar
    • missing the oxygen found in ribose ( The 5 carbon sugat in RNA)
  27. DNA bases
    • Adenine , Thymine, Cytosine, Guanine
  28. Nucleotides
    • A nucleotide is composed of a nucleobase (nitrogenous base), a five-carbon sugar (either ribose or 2'-deoxyribose), and one to three phosphate groups
    • The phosphate groups form bonds with either the 2, 3, or 5-carbon of the sugar, with the 5-carbon site most common.
    • Nucleotides can contain either a purine or a pyrimidine base.
    • the purine bases are adenine and guanine, while the pyrimidines are thymine and cytosine. RNA uses uracil in place of thymine.
  29. Base Pairing Rules
    • A with T: the purine adenine (A) always pairs with the pyrimidine thymine (T)
    • C with G: the pyrimidine cytosine (C) always pairs with the purine guanine (G)
  30. DNA structure
    • Double Helix
    • two polynucleotide strands wound around each other.
    • backbone of each consists of alternating deoxyribose and phosphate groups.
    • DNA strands are assembled in the 5′ to 3′ direction