Ch 10

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anahoj
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47375
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Ch 10
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2010-11-05 17:18:26
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  1. economics
    the academic discipline that studies systems of production, distribution, and consumption, most typically in the industrialized world.
  2. economic anthropology
    A branch of the discipline of anthropology that looks at systems of production, distribution, and consumption, wherever they may be found, but most often the non-industrialized world.
  3. formal economic theorists
    Those economic anthropologists who suggest that the ideas of Western, industrialized economics can be applied to any economic situation.
  4. allocation of resources
    Rules adopted by all societies that govern the regulation and control of such resources as land, water, and their by-products.
  5. universalism
    The notion of rewarding people on the basis of some universally applied set of standards.
  6. particularism
    The propensity to deal with other people based on one's particular relationship to them rather than according to a universally applied set of standards.
  7. property rights
    Western concept of individual ownership in which rights and obligations to land, livestock, or material possessions reside with the individual rather than a wider group.
  8. production
    A process whereby goods are obtained from the natural environment and altered to become consumable goods for society.
  9. division of labor
    The rules found in all societies dictating how the day-to-day tasks are assigned to the various members of a society.
  10. organic solidarity
    A type of societal integration based on mutual interdependence- found in societies with a relatively elaborate division of labor.
  11. mechanical solidarity
    A type of social integration based on mutuality of interests- found in societies with little division of labor.
  12. reciprocity
    A mode of distribution characterized by the exchange of goods and services of approximately equal value between parties.
  13. generalized reciprocity
    The practice of giving a gift without an expected return but with a moral obligation.
  14. balanced reciprocity
    The practice of giving with the expectation that a similar gift will be given in the opposite direction after a limited period of time.
  15. silent trade
    A form of trading found in some small-scale societies in which the trading partners have no face-to-face contact.
  16. kula ring
    A form of reciprocal trading found among the Trobriand Islanders involving the use of white shell necklaces and red shell bracelets.
  17. negative reciprocity
    A form of economic exchange between individuals who try to take advantage of each other.
  18. redistribution
    A form of economic exchange in which goods and services are given by members of a group to a central authority (such as chief) and then distributed back to the donors, usually in the form of a feast.
  19. tribute
    Giving of goods to a chief as a visible symbol of the people's allegiance.
  20. big men/big women
    Self-made leaders, found widely in Melanesia and New Guinea, who gain prominence by convincing their followers to contribute excess food to provide lavish feasts for the followers of other big men or big women.
  21. bridewealth
    The transfer of goods from the groom's lineage to the bride's lineage to legitimize marriage.
  22. potlatch
    A form of competitive giveaway found among Native Americans from the Northwest Coast that serves as a mechanism for both achieving social status and distributing goods.
  23. prestige ceremonies
    A category of economic institutions, such as the potlatch or big men/ big women, in which wealth is distributed and prestige and status are thereby conferred.
  24. market exchange
    a form of distribution in which goods and services are bought and sold and their value is determined by the principle of supply and demand
  25. standardized currency
    a medium of exchange that has well-defined and understood value
  26. barter
    the direct exchange of commodities between people that does not involve standardized currency
  27. globalization
    The worldwide process, dating back to the fall of the Berlin Wall, that involves a revolution in information technology, a dramatic opening of markets, and the privatization of social services.

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