What European country was not in either World War?
Germany's emperor_________, wanted territory on the ____________ (aka _____________)
1. William I
2. Mediterranean Sea Coast
small national groups that wanted to rule themselves (colonies)
France wanted _________ & ___________ back from Germany.
Alsace and Lorraine
By 1914, countries in Europe had ________ military.
compulsory (or draft)
What was the only country w/o a draft?
WWI began in ________.
final straw on the camel's back that began WWI was over ____________________.
Austria-Hungary's ownership of Bosnia & Hertzegovenia.
Capital of Bosnia, where WWI started.
who was killed when he was shot heading to the hospital to see a guard of his who was killed when a bomb was thrown at his motorcade to the godwill mission?
Archduke Ferdinand (Aust.-Hun.)
Secret Serbian society
The Black Hand
Serb who shot Archduke and wife
1st ultimatum: (July 26)
Aust.-Hun. gave 48 hr. ultim. for Serb.
-this would give Serbia to Aust.-Hun.
2nd Ultimatum: (July 28)
Aust-Hun declared war on Serbia
-Russia wanted Balcan, so they prepared to help Serbia
-Germany was preparing to help Aust.-Hun.
3rd Ultimatum (July 30)
Germany sent 12 hr. ultim. to Russia to cease mobilization.
-Germany declared war on Russia
-Germany feared a 2-front war
-France- western front
4th Ultimatum (Aug 1)
Germany sent 24-hour ultim. to France to declare themselves neutral
5th Ultimatum (Aug. 2)
Germany declared war on France
-Germany brought the 2-front war on itself
-Germany had a plan (Schlieffen Plan)
-Planned to make a surprise attack on Fra.
-Asked Belgium if they could march throught their country... NO!
-Couldn't b/c of Grarantee of 1839
-Fra. found out the plan
Germany decided to knock France out fast (Russia wouldn't be ready, they'd have France out of the way and could fight Russia alone)
What date did Germany march into Britain?
Starting date of WWI
4 Allied Powers (at beggining of war)
3. Britain (and Japan)
3 Central Powers (at beggining of war)
2. Austria- Hungary
Everyone thought this war would be a _______ war.
1 million man army
100,000 man army
1.5 million man army
-Germans were stopped
-Lasted 3 yrs./ neither side gained more than 10 miles
-1.4 million casualties in 1st 4 mo.
-Germans knew Russia mobilized fast
1st Battle of the Marne
-2 battles in east btwn Germany & Russia
-both learned lessons
-Germany:they didn't have to worry too much abt the eastern front
-Russia:they didn't want to fight Germany & realized how weak Nicholas (tsar) was
Tannenberg and Mansuria
In 1915, who joined Allied Powers b/c of promisses made by GB?
Who went to the Central Powers side?
1st time chemical warfare used (Germany had good chem. industry)
Battle of Ypres
British cruise ship that was sank by central powers. Germans claimed it had contraband on it.
Turkey had grown weak and was known as the 'sick man of Europe' and GB wanted to take it.
leader in charge of Gallipoli (saved it).
4 Central Power Positives:
1. Bulgaria joined
2. Chemical weapons
Home to German navy
Jutland was the only _________ battle in WWI.
German battleships met British battleships in ________
Longest, bloodiest battle of WWI
It protects Paris
Battle of Verdun
New leader of Verdun
French motto for the Battle of Verdun:
'they shall not pass'
Who won the Battle of Verdun?
Battle w/ highest single day casualties in WWI or WWII (GB lost 60,000 that day)
Battle of Somme
War effects on the home front:
war weary, food rations, women worked hard (gained voting and respect), troops weary too
Germany hired this man to revamp Ger., Indus. mngr., German Jew, it worked!
'That kindly, stupid man'
poor leadership of Nicholas II
-factory workers on strike
-troops sent to end strike, join
-Nicholas ordered Duma dissolved
-Duma fired Nicholas
Removed Czar from power
1st Revolution in Russia
Temporary government officials
Lvov and Kerensky
what movement was growing in Russia saying that they wanted to pull out of the war but temp. gov't said 'NO!'