chapter 9

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chapter 9
2010-11-04 19:38:30

introduction to intermolecular forces
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  1. boiling point
    the temperature at which a liquid can spontaneously convert into a gas while under one atmosphere of pressure
  2. coulomb's Law
    Describes the force of attraction (or repulsion)

    • F=q1q2
    • 4πƐ0r2
  3. crystal lattice Energy
    the addition force of attraction an ion experiences when it is part of a larger crystal
  4. Dipole-Dipole
    this interaction is simply the force of attraction between polar molecules
  5. evaporation (vaporization)
    This occurs when a molecule at the surface of a liquid attains sufficient kinetic energy to escape the forces holding it in the liquid phase.
  6. vapor pressure
    The pressure exerted by the gas in equilibrium with a solid or liquid in a closed container at a given temperature.
  7. molar enthalpy of vaporization
    is a quantitative measure of the intermolecular forces of attraction is defined as heat energy requried to vaporize one mole of a liquid
  8. Clausius Clapeyron equation
    quantifies the ralationship between the heat of vaporization and temperature.

    • ln P=- ΔHvap
    • RT

  9. Specific Heat
    amount of heat needed to raise one gram that of that substance by one degree celcius
  10. British Thermal Unit (BTU)
    the amount of heat needed to raise on gallon of water by on degree Fahrenheit
  11. sublimation
    phase transition from a solid directly to a gas without passing through a liquid phase
  12. Deposition
    phase transition from a gas directly to a solid without passing through a liquid phase
  13. triple point
    the point at which a solid, liquid, and gas can coexist in equilibrium
  14. critical point
    occurs when you reach a temperature that is too hot for the liquid phase to exist while simultaneously reaching a pressure to great for the gas phase to exist.
  15. Super critical fluid
    phase that exists at temperatures and pressures above the critical point the kinetic energy of the molecules is well past what is needed to overcome the intermolecular forces of attraction and the pressure is so great that the molecules resemble a condensed state.
  16. specific heat of water
    1 calorie per gram degree celcius
  17. calorie
    amount of heat needed to raise gram of water by one degree celcius
  18. dispersion forces
    intermolecular attraction force that exists between all molecules. These forces are the result of the movement of electrons which cause slight polar moments and are generally very weak but as the molecular mass increases so does their strength
  19. the molar enthalpy of fusion
    energy required to convert one mole of a solid to one mole of liquid.
  20. Condensation
    the change of the physical state of matter from gaseous phase into liquid phase, and is the reverse of evaporation
  21. hydrogen bonds
    attractive interaction of a hydrogen atom with an electronegative atom, like nitrogen, oxygen or fluorine
  22. Kinetic Molecular theory
    explains the forces between molecules and the energy that they possess.