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2010-11-04 20:10:38

history of creativity
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  1. Asceticism
    • Shunning luxury and complexity while retaining some value of sensory
    • perceptions, extreme self denial and austerity. Stoics followed this.
  2. Abassid
    • a Muslim group that built the capitol in Baghdad, united the Shi’ites and
    • gained the support of the Sunnis against the corruption that had crept
    • into the Umayyad reign. Focused on arts, sciences, and other cultural
    • aspect of life. Assumed control throughout all of Islam except Spain.
    • (Abbasid Dynasty=Islam’s Golden Age)
  3. Aeneas
    • Character in the Aeneid. Written by Virgil. Forced onto his Journey when Troy was destroyed. Left on a
    • quest to find a new home for his people and Gods. His wife was killed but took the rest of his family with him. Shipwrecked in Carthage, Married queen Dido, left Carthage and ended up in Latium, the western
    • coast of Italy. Married the King’s Daughter and settled down. He is a moderate Character that only does what he is forced to do by fate and circumstance. Shows that the Romans were content with the simple and
    • the practical. He was a reluctant adventurer with a destiny and sense of duty that dictated his actions. Showed Roman Values of Duty to state and duty to family. (also included duty to the Gods, to follow the
    • destiny they gave him) Wasn’t he the one that had to leave Dido heartbroken because of his sense of duty, and then encountered her in the underworld later on?
  4. Alexander the Great
    • Son of Phillip II(ruler of Greece); student of Aristotle; one of leading
    • Macedonian generals (became general at age 16) and a creative leader.
    • His planning coupled with his intense desires for accomplishment led to
    • his greatness. Alexander wanted world domination. Alexander’s
    • qualities and conquests are on pages 110-114. Success because of
    • creative leadership. First target was Persian Empire, sent his army
    • early in the morning and conquered the unprepared Persians. Cut the
    • knot in Gordium as symbol of world domination. Next, he was confronted
    • by Persian emperor Darius III. Attacked the middle and sent Darius and
    • defense running. named son of god Ammon. Met Darius’ army again in
    • Gaugamela, Persians saw eclipse and meteor showers as the end of Persian
    • rule. Alexander delayed attack and came out victorious.
  5. Alexandria
    • city in Egypt; rival to Antioch, known for its many libraries. All ships that stopped at the
    • port were searched for documents, which were then copied. Rivaled with
    • Pergamum (this rivalry led to the invention of parchment). Had a 400 ft
    • lighthouse (one of the 7 wonders of the ancient world). Founded by
    • Alexander the Great, he was cremated there.
  6. Alexandrian scientists
    • AKA Hellenistic scientists. (See Euclid and Archimedes), they later were
    • known as the Epicureans. Also known as the Peripatetics, descent from
    • Aristotle.
  7. Ali
    • cousin of Mohammad, married to Mohammad’s daughter. Ali readily accepted the
    • message Mohammad got from God/Allah (Islam). Was supported by the
    • Shi’ites to be the next ruler, he is also one of the four caliphs
    • (killed in the succession war)
  8. Allah
    word for God or Jehovah in Arabic
  9. Appian Way
    • the main thoroughfare into Rome. Had durable roads that are still there
    • today (grooves where the wagons went because it was used so much- that
    • same width became the width for trains); Nero crucified Christians here
    • and then set them on fire to light the way
  10. Antiochus IV
    • Syrian King. Antiochus ordered the end of all worship to any gods that
    • weren’t Zeus and the other gods of the Greek Pantheon (in order to unify
    • and completely Hellenize his empire)
  11. Antipater
    • appointed by Julius Caesar. leader of the Idumaeans (a people that lived in the
    • Levant and had interacted with the Jews as enemies). Son- Herod who
    • later got the throne
  12. Apocyryph
    The Old Testament included some of these books (Apocrypha)A group of books of the original old testament that was later rejected as questionable authenticity
  13. Arabs
    an ethnic group of people who can belong to a variety of religions; the majority are Muslim
  14. Arch of Titus
    single arch (memorial) in Rome, depicts sacking of Jerusalem.
  15. Archimedes
    • Hellenistic scientist. Taught by pupil of Euclid. Significant contributions to: mechanics, hydraulics, warfare, mathematics, and astronomy. Found buoyancy principle. Devised scientific notation; considered his greatest
    • work to be his geometric discoveries (which he wanted on his tomb); used “reducing the error to the limit” to calculate pi. Demonstrated creativity in warfare with large crane with claw and by reflecting light off shields to ignite sails of Roman ships and catapult stones) Newton used his principles as a starting point. Story of the King of Syracuse and his questionable crown (Buoyancy principle).
  16. Arian Christianity
    • Religion which believed that Christ was only a mortal man begotten of God and reduced his role to the lesser demigod. The Goths, Egyptian Christians, and barbaric Christians of Europe practiced this. Attacked by Justin,
    • which united the east and the west.
  17. Attila
    Leader of the Huns, a non-German tribe from central Asia. The Huns were fierce warriors who struck terror into the Germans.
  18. averroes
    a Greek Islamic scholar, specifically a teacher and philosopher who wrote a massive commentary on Aristotle
  19. Avicena
    a Greek Islamic scholar who advanced medical knowledge. His medical books were used as textbooks in Europe for over 500 year
  20. Bouyoncy principle
    Scientific principle found by Archimedes. He used this principle to determine if the king of Syracuse’s crown was made of pure gold or not by measuring the displacement of water of the crown and comparing it to the density of pure gold.
  21. Belisarius
    Was the general of Justinian’s army who overtook Italy twice, he was always faithful to Justinian. Faithful bodyguard to Justinian’s uncle, Justin. Won more battles than any other Roman general since Julius Caesar. Goths invited him to come into the city of Ravenna, and they'd concede if he'd be their king. He agreed for strategic reasons but Justine called him back home before he could conquer.
  22. St. Benedict
    • “In the sixth century St. Benedict conducted a religious revival and wrote new rules that established the
    • basis of modern Roman Catholic monasticism” (p. 206). Patron saint against poisoning. Wrote Benedictine Rule.
  23. Bubonic Plague
    Swept through Byzantium killing 40-70% of the population during the time of Justinian
  24. Byzantine empire
    It was essentially the eastern part of the Roman empire, however it only became Byzantium after the downfall of the western region in 476 AD.
  25. Byzantium
    The original city of Constantinople, was called Neo Roma or new Rome. It controlled the trading routes from Europe to Asia and was thriving within 6 years of creation.
  26. Caligula
    • His real name was Gaius and he was named Tiberius’ successor. He was leader for only 4 years due to his increasing insanity. He was killed by the commander of the guard. Caligula is a nickname meaning “little
    • boot”
  27. Cato
    Condemned conspirators who wanted to overthrow the Republic government
  28. Censor
    Magistrates who were responsible for guarding moral values of Rome; also conducted a census of the people (during which they could decide to raise a person’s status from Pleb to Patrician)..
  29. Centurian
    Roman commander of 100 men, had to be an experienced fighter who had come up through the ranks and had shown great personal bravery & dedication to Roman values
  30. Chaledonians
    Believed Christ had two separate natures, one human and one divine, and they existed simultaneously, yet separately, in person of resurrected Jesus Christ.
  31. charlemagne
    • 800 AD)recognized as new Roman emperor by Catholic Church.Bestowed title as
    • “Holy Roman Emperor” by pope. One of Pepin the Short’s sons that
    • inherited the kingdom. He tried to emulate what Theodoric the Goth had
    • done. Established uniform laws for his kingdom and also established the
    • idea of “divine right of kings”(see pg. 258). United most of Europe
    • under his control. His kingdom was divided by his grandsons.
  32. Cicero
    • Roman philosopher, orator, and consul; mostly copied Greek philosophy
    • simplifying it for the understanding of the masses. He stuck to the
    • strict sense of virtue of the Greeks and proposed that people inherently
    • understood what virtue was. Disliked Julius Ceaser, loved the Roman
    • republic. “Participate but do the virtuous thing always” leader of the
    • optimates
  33. Clement of Alexandria
    • Teacher of the school of Alexandria who had a pupil, Origen, together they
    • rejected the appointed bishop of Alexandria, Peter. Eventually exiled
    • when Peter regained power.
  34. Cleopatra
    • Nominal co-ruler of Egypt with Ptolemy XIII, her brother and husband. After
    • war between both Egyptian factions, Ptolemy was killed and Cleopatra
    • remained ruler under Roman authority. Rome supported Cleopatra’s
    • faction as a love affair began the first night Julius Caesar and
    • Cleopatra met.
  35. Colesium
    • Roman structure, built to accommodate 50,000 spectators; today it is in
    • partial ruin due to the Romans taking stones from it to construct other
    • buildings.
  36. Consul
    Senate appointed 2 consuls to serve 1-year terms. Each could veto actions of the other. They had no responsibilities or powers affecting day-to-day policies of the city of Rome. Chief executive officers of Rome.
  37. Constantine
    • Built city of Byzantium (renamed Constantinople). Built Large libraries, new senate. Responsible for bringing Christianity to the Roman Empire. Had a vision before going into battle, and put a Christian symbol on his
    • soldiers’ shields. Oversaw Nicene Council. Responsible for building the Hagia Sophia (Church of the Holy Wisdom). Responsible for Edict of Milan (see Edict of Milan).
  38. Cordoba
    Islamic city that had a library over 400,000 volumes. Scholars assembled here.
  39. Crassus
    Caesar made an allegiance with him. Leader of the Roman army, defeated slave revolt. Organized Rome’s only fire department. Formed the triumverate with Caesar & Pompey; served as consul with Pompey as his companion consul; was captured and killed by the Parthinians
  40. Darius
    • Persian emperor who was outsmarted by Alexander the Great, when Alexander charged him in battle and he fled. Alexander encountered Darius and used the same tactic. Darius fled again, resulting in the collapse of
    • the Persian army. Darius was killed by his own troops.
  41. Democritus
    made the atomic theory. Epicureans believed that things weren’t governed by a superficial power, thus god didn’t exist. rejected religion. life was spontaneous and ended with death.
  42. Diaspora
    • Name given to the scattering of Jews by Romans. This deals with the Jewish people being exported out of Israel. This happened several times by several different empires, First being the Babylonian empire and then
    • later in 70 A.D. by the Romans following the Jewish revolt. Caused Jews to rely on local Rabbis for revelation. Began to rely more on prayer rather than temple sacrifice.
  43. Diocletian
    Ended Third Century leadership crisis. Believed empire needed to be administered in two sections. Latin-speaking western part and Greek-speaking eastern part. Established augustii (each leader was an “Augustus”) leadership positions that had full authority. He became Augustus of east and name his aide, Maximian, augustus of west. Diocletian also created “Caesars” who were secondary leaders for the augustii, creating the Tetrachy. Essentially created a president and vice-president for both the east and the west. Also ordered sacrifices to be made to Roman gods or be put to death.
  44. Dome of the rock
    Islamic building on the place where Mohammad ascended into heaven. This is on the temple mount in Israel. This is a point of contention for the Jewish people since they would like to have a temple in the same place.
  45. Edict of Milan
    A decree by Constantine that all religions should be respected; ended the persecution of the Christians
  46. Eusebius
    Bishop and historian of the church. Most famous for his history of the church written in the 4th century AD
  47. Euclid
    Lived in Alexandria. Set out principles of geometry in a logical system (see p. 117). Wrote textbook Elements of Geometry that was the standard textbook for study of geometry until around 1900.
  48. Galen
    Was a physician to the Romans who gained his knowledge from caring for the gladiators. Built upon concepts of Hippocrates which included using observations and notes to assist in diagnosis and that physicians have knowledge of body and purpose of organs. Believed that illness was imbalance of the four bodily fluids/humors. Put medical knowledge into 22 volumes that served as standard medical textbooks into modern era.
  49. Gracchus Brothers
    Two brothers(that attempted to overthrow the senate) both were assassinated. The older, Tiberius, was mad at the senate for not passing his legislation. So he became a tribune and attempted to overrule the senate by taking the legislation to the plebian council (he did not take it to the senate first). It still did not pass because another member of the tribune vetoed it. He removed the opposing tribune by force. Tiberius was assassinated in the street when he ran for another term as tribune. His brother, Gaius, upon the assassination of Tiberius decided to finish what his brother started and eventually he and 3000 supporters were killed in a riot
  50. Greek Fire
    Type of petroleum product that could be sprayed on an opposing ship and ignited resulting in great damage to enemy ships. Byzantium used it to defend seaward approaches to capital.
  51. Gregory I
    Was a pope in the 6th century whose accommodation of the pagan beliefs influenced many people to Christianity. Allowed a simple form of music to be added to the mass; Gregorian Chant
  52. Hadrian
    • built a wall across the northern frontier of Britain. Also built extensive wooden fortifications along the Rhine and Danube Rivers. Gave back part of the territory in Mesopotamia that Trajan had conquered, thought it
    • was undefendable
  53. Hagia Sophia
    the ‘Church of Holy Wisdom’ . Largest church in Christianity at the time. Found in Constantinople.
  54. Hannibal
    • Famous Carthaginian general. Left Carthage and marched troops and war elephants over Pyranees and Alps into Italy to battle Romans. Romans eventually attacked Carthage, which was virtually left undefended with
    • Hannibal in Italy. Hannibal returned to Carthage in time to meet Romans, but was defeated.
  55. Hellenism
    Possibly meaning Hellenization which is the spread of Greek influences over foreign peoples (p. 109-141). comes from Greek word for Greece: Hellas
  56. Hellenistic
    • Period describes the era which followed the conquests of Alexander the Great. During this time, Greek cultural influence and power was at its zenith in Europe and Asia. It is often considered a period of transition.
    • Period between the fall of the Golden Age of Greece and the establishment of the Roman Empire.
  57. Hero
    Invented the “steam engine” or steam powered inventions mostly used in temples
  58. Herod
    Son of Antipater. Governor of Jerusalem. An insecure ruler who killed thousands of innocent Jews.
  59. Horatio
    an example of a Roman hero, who differs from the Greek in putting the state in front of all personal matters. He was holding off an army of invading Etruscans all by himself. The bridge was collapsing, but he survived.
  60. Horatii
    the three triplets from a Roman Family. Were challenged by a neighboring tribe to a duel, with three of their warriors, the Curiatii. One Horatii brother lived, killing all three of the Curiatii. When he came back, his sister wept because of the death of her lover. Her brother killed her for having relations with the enemy.
  61. Icons
    are paintings and holy images of religious figures, considered a window to the heavenly world, so one could speak through the image to the world of divinity and thus draw closer to God.
  62. Iconclasts
    Christians that destroyed icons in the Roman temples; literally meaning image breakers
  63. Idumeans
    people that lived in Levant, and had interactions with the Jews, usually as enemies. Leader was Antipater.
  64. Imperial Church
    Church where the head is the emperor or other state leader. This is the same format as the church of England
  65. Islam
    2nd largest religion in the world. Worship Allah. Prophet= Mohammed.Sacred book= Qu' ran."submission or peace". followers are called Muslims.
  66. Istanbul
    Constantinople’s new name after being captured by Ottoman Turks in 1453.