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What are the 5 routes of administration of drugs?
orally, contact, snorting, injection, inhaling
List the routes of administration in order of increasing reaction times.
inhaling, injection, snorting, contact, orally
Adulterants and Diluents are also known as _______
T/F: Diluents are compounds which are added to increase the effect of the drug.
False! Those are adulterants.
What compounds are strictly added for bulk to increase the quantity of powder for distribution?
Zoloft, Prozac, Elavil, Pamelor, Desyrel are trade names for what type of drugs?
What are the 3 general drug classifications?
depressants, stimulants, hallucinogens
List some examples of depressants.
T/F: The opium poppy can only be grown in warm, wet climates.
False! The opium poppy can be grown in any climate and any soil.
How much opium poppy plant can be harvested per acre?
How long does it take for the opium poppy plants to mature and flower?
2 to 4 months
From what part of the plant does the opium drug come from?
The pod underneath the flower
What is the yield of opium per poppy plant?
10 to 100mg opium/ pod
How much plant does one acre of poppy plants yield?
Explain the process of turning opium into heroin.
Raw opium is converted into morphine base. The morphine base is converted to heroin base. The heroin base is then converted into heroin HCl.
What is fentanyl?
It is a designer drug manufactured as a stronger, synthetic version of heroin.
T/F: Fentanyl is commonly used in hospitals as an anesthetic medication.
True! It is 200 times more potent than morphine.
_______ produces a heroin-like high with a short duration.
How are barbiturates classified?
according to their speed and duration of action
What are the 4 types of barbiturates?
ultrashort, short, intermediate, long
Give some examples of each of the 4 types of barbiturates.
- ultrashort- pentothal (truth serum)
- short- pentobarbital (yellow jackets)
- - secobarbital (Reds)
- intermediate- amobarbital (Blue heavens)
- long- pehnobarbital (Pink ladies)
Which barbiturate is commonly found in Robitussin- DM?
In large doses, dextromethorphan can act as a depressant as a depressant of what body system?
central nervous system
Dextromethorphan metabolizes to dextrphan, an analog of which drug?
What are the most widely prescribed group of substances?
Diazepam, clonazepam, alprazolam are the 3 most common __________.
Relaxation, reduced anxiety, and skeletal muscle relaxation are effects of flunitrazepam, also known as _______?
What are some examples of stimulants?
- diet aids/ herbal
- catha edulis (KHAT)
- methcathinone (CAT)
One acre of coca plants produces how much?
~7000 plants yielding 800 kilos of coca leaf
How many kilos of coca leaf are needed to produce 1 kilo of coca base?
What percentage of the coca leaf is actually cocaine?
Describe the process of cocaine production.
- coca leaf... to ... cocaine paste
- cocaine paste... to ... cocaine base
- cocaine base... to ... cocaine HCl
T/F: Cocaine is one of the most potent naturally occurring stimulants.
How is cocaine HCl converted to Crack Cocaine?
Cocaine HCl is dissolved in water. Then sodium bicarbonate is added to the water and also dissolved. The water is heated to a boil. The cocaine base will form an oil and falls to the bottom of the container. The container needs to be cooled with ice and the oil forms into a solid. The cocaine is then taken out and dried.
Cathinone and cathine are the major psychoactive ingredient in what drug?
T/F: The effects of KHAT are similar to those produced by amphetamines.
CAT is another name for which drug?
Methcathinone is a _________ _______ of methamphetamine.
T/F: Methamphetamine is a naturally occurring drug.
False! It is not naturally occurring and has to be synthesized. It is a derivative of amphetamine.
What drug is often referred to as a poor man's cocaine?
MDMA or _______ produces _______ effects like amphetamine and mild ___________ effects like mescaline.
What category of drugs can be synthesized forms of naturally occurring chemicals found in plants of plant materials?
What is a hallucination?
a sensory experience of something that does not exist outside the mind
What are some examples of hallucinogen drugs?
- lysergic acid diethylamide
- MDA or MDMA
Which is the most powerful of the hallucinogenic drugs?
lysergic acid diethylamide, aka LSD or acid
What are the 2 natural sources of LSD?
- ergotamine from the ergot fungus
- lysergic acid amide from the morning glory seed
What is the major active ingredient in psychedelic mushrooms?
T/F: There is more psilocybin in the stems than the caps of mushrooms.
False! There is more in the caps.
How long do the effects of psychedelic mushrooms last?
5 to 6 hours
What is the principle psychoactive ingredient in marijuana?
What are cystolithic hairs?
They are hairs found on the leaflets of marijuana and give a fuzzy appearance to the plant. They are essentially crystalline deposits of THC.
T/F: Hashish is on average 8 to 10 times less potent than marijuana.
False! Hash is more potent than marijuana.
What type of oil is highly concentrated cannabis with purities up to 60%?
T/F: Hashish oil is a dark liquid resembling motor oil.
How is hashish oil produced?
by continual extraction of the resin by use of solvents (alcohol or ethers)
What is the active dose of salvinorin A?
T/F: Salvia is a highly potent halluncinogen with a short, intense time of action.
What are some examples of inhalants?
- hair spray
- computer duster
- anesthetic gases
- fuel gases
What are the routes of administration of ketamine?
- the liquid form can be injected
- powder form can be smoked, snorted, or swallowed
What is the typical dose of GHB?
What is the onset and duration of the effects of GHB?
- onset- 15-30mins
- duration- 3-6 hours