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The accumulation of excess fluid in cells or tissues
Type of edema that is a reflection of cellular injury and altered cell membrane permeability
Type of edema that reflects either a disturbance in the normal hemodynamic forces that control fluid transfer between the vascular and extravascular space or it indicates endothelial injury and increased vascular permeability
Interstitial edema that is a diffuse process involving all tissues of the body
What factors can lead to generalized edema? (5)
- Increase in total body sodium
- Decrease in serum albumin
- Increased hydrostatic pressure of the intravascular fluid
- Obstruction of lymphatic drainage (lymphedema)
- Increased capillary permeability
A protein-poor fluid that develops from imbalances in the normal hemodynamic forces. Generally seen with congestive heart failure, liver disease, renal disease, and GI disorders
A protein-rich fluid that is generally the result of endothelial damage and alteration of vascular permeability. Seen with inflammatory immunologic disorders
Decreased blood flow in veins, venules, and capillaries, usually due to impaired venous drainage. Results in a bluish discoloration of tissue (cyanosis) due to accumulation of reduced hemoglobin. Edema is a common accompaniment of this. Effects of a chronic stage of this is most often seen in the liver, lungs, and spleen
Increased blood flow through dilated arteries, arterioles, and capillary beds. Results in increased warmth and redness (erythema) in affected tissue.
True or False:
The signs and symptoms of heart failure are generally due to hypoxic and congestive effects on organs and tissues other than the heart itself
What are the clinical manifestations of left-heart failure? (6)
- Easy fatigability
- Shortness of breath
- Dyspnea on exertion
- Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
Which type of heart failure may result in: engorgment and distention of neck veins; passive congestion of the liver; portal hypertension; dependent pitting edema; increased body weight; liver disease; renal disease; GI disease; and inflammatory/immunologic disorders?
Right-sided heart failure
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