Med Terms Chap. 6-Urinary

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Med Terms Chap. 6-Urinary
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2010-11-05 02:20:15
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Med Terms Chap. 6-Urinary
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  1. the act of releasing urine is called (3 ways)
    urination, voiding, micturition
  2. urologist
    study of urinary disorders
  3. specialized tissue in the kidneys called...
    parenchymal tissue
  4. ureters
    thin, muscular tubes that move urine in peristaltic waves from the kidneys to the bladder
  5. urinary bladder
    sac that stores urine until excreted
  6. urethra
    tube that conducts the urine out of the body
  7. urinary meatus
    opening of the urethra
  8. trigone
    the triangular area in the bladder between the ureter's entrance and the urethral outlet
  9. ureters, bladder, and urethra are composed of this type of supportive tissue
    stromal tissue
  10. cortex
    outer portion of kidneys
  11. medulla
    inner part of kidneys
  12. renal pelvis and calyces
    are an extension of the ureter in the side of the kidneys
  13. renal
    pertaining to the kidnesy
  14. hilum
    location on the kidney where the ureter and renal vein leave the kidney and the renal artery enters
  15. nephrons
    microscopic units of the cortex
  16. renal afferent arteries
    transport unfiltered blood to the kidneys
  17. glomeruli
    tiny balls of renal capillaries
  18. nephron consists of 4 parts:
    • 1. renal corpuscle
    • 2. proximal convoluted tubule
    • 3. nephronic lupe
    • 4. distal convoluted tubule
  19. extra-
    outside
  20. en-
    in
  21. par--
    beside, near
  22. retro-
    backward
  23. Abscess
    cavity containing pus surrounded by inflamed tissue
  24. Albuminuria
    albumin in he urine. Also called proteinuria
  25. Azotemia
    condition of excessive urea in the blood indicating nonfunctioning kidneys; also called uremia
  26. Azoturia
    excessive nitrogenous compounds, including urea, in the urine
  27. Bacteriuria
    bacteria in the urine
  28. Edema
    accumulation of fluid in the tissues; can result from kidney failure
  29. Glycosuria
    sugar in the urine
  30. Hematuria
    blood in the urine
  31. Hypertension
    condition of high blood pressure
  32. Pyuria
    pus in the urine
  33. Anuria
    condition of no urine
  34. Diuresis
    condition of increased formation and excretion of urine, of large volumes of urine. Caffeine and alcohol are diuretics – that is they increase the amount of urine produced
  35. Dysuria
    condition of painful urination
  36. Enuresis
    also commonly known as “bed wetting” enuresis can be nocturnal or diurnal
  37. Incontinence
    inability to hold urine
  38. Nocturia
    condition of excessive urination at night
  39. Oliguria
    condition of scanty urination
  40. Polydipsia
    condition of excessive thirst (usually accompanied by polyuria)
  41. Polyuria
    condition of excessive urination
  42. Retention
    inability to release urine
  43. Urgency
    Intense sensation of the need to urinate immediately
  44. Diabetes insipidus
    Deficiency of antidiuretic (ADH) hormone, which causes the patient to excrete large quantities of urine and exhibit excessive thirst
  45. Diabetes mellitus
    • Metabolic disease caused by an absolute or relative deficiency of insulin and characterized by hyperglycemia, glycosuria, water and electrolyte
    • loss, ketoacidosis, and possible eventual coma
  46. Nephrolithiasis
    stones in the kidneys
  47. Polycystic kidney disease
    • Inherited disorder characterized by an enlargement of the kidneys caused by many renal cysts bilaterally that reduce functioning of renal
    • tissue
  48. Renal colic
    severe pain associated with kidney stones lodged in the ureter. The term “colic” means pain
  49. Urinary tract infection (UTI)
    • infection anywhere in the urinary system, caused most commonly by bacteria, but also parasites, yeast, and protozoa. Most frequently occurring
    • disorder in the urinary system
  50. Urolithiasis
    stones anywhere in the urinary tract, but usually in the renal pelvis or urinary bladder. Usually formed in patients with an excess of the mineral calcium. Also called urinary calculi
  51. Urosepsis
    the presence of bacteria in the blood caused by a UTI
  52. glomerulonphritis (GN)
    inflammation of the glomeruli of the kidney characterized by proteinuria, hematuria, decreased urine production, and edema
  53. hydronephrosis
    dilation of the renal pelvis and calices of one or both kindeys resulting from obstruction of the flow of urine
  54. Nephritis
    inflammation of the kidney; a general term that does not specify the location of the inflammation or its cause.
  55. Nephropathy
    Disease of he kidneys; a general term that does not specify a disorder
  56. Nephroptosis
    Prolapse of sagging of the kidney
  57. Nephritic syndrome
    Abnormal group of symptoms in the kidney, characterized by proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, and edema; may occur in glomerular disease and as a complication of many systemic diseases. Also called nephrosis
  58. Pyelonephritis
    Infection of the renal pelvis and parenchyma of the kidney, usually the result of lower urinary tract infection
  59. Renal failure
    Inability of the kidneys to excrete wastes, concentrate urine, and conserve electrolytes. Maybe acute or chronic
  60. Acute renal failure
    Sudden inability of the kidneys to excrete wastes, resulting from hemorrhage, trauma, burns, toxic, injury to the kidney, pyelonephritis or glomerulonephritis, or lower urinary tract obstruction. Characterized by oliguria and rapid azotemia
  61. Chronic kidney disease
    • CKD is measured in stages of increasing severity, from 1 (mild damage with a normal glomerular filtration rate) to 5 (complete kidney failure requiring
    • either dialysis or a renal transplant). Stage 5 is also called end- stage renal disease (ESRD).
  62. Renal hypertension
    High Blood pressure secondary to kidney disease.
  63. Renal sclerosis
    Hardening of the arteries of the kidneys. Also known as nephrosclerosis
  64. Cystitis
    inflammation of the urinary bladder
  65. Cystocele
    Herniation of the urinary bladder
  66. Ureterocele
    Prolapse of the terminal end o the ureter into the bladder.
  67. Urethral stenosis
    Narrowing of the urethra. Also called a urethral stricture
  68. Urethritis
    Inflammation of the urethra
  69. Vesicoureteral reflux
    Abnormal backflow of urine from the bladder to the ureter.
  70. Renal adenoma
    Small, slow growing noncancerous tumors of the kidney, usually found at autopsy
  71. Renal oncocytoma
    The most common benign solid renal tumor.
  72. Transitional cell papilloma
    Also referred to as a bladder papilloma. Although this type of tumor is benign when found, recurrences are occasionally malignant
  73. Renal cell carcinoma
    • Also referred to as hypernephroma or adenocarcinoma of the kidney, this is the tenth most
    • common cancer. Although the cause is unknown, risk factors include smoking and obesity
  74. Nephroblastoma
    • Also called Wilms tumor, thee tumors develop from kidney cells that did not develop fully before a childs birth. These cancerous tumors of the kidney
    • occur mainly in children.
  75. Transitional cell carcinoman (TCC) of the bladder
    These malignant tumors account for approximately 90% of all bladder cancers and arise from the cell lining the bladder
  76. Blood urea nitrogen
    Blood test that measures the amount of nitrogenous waste in the circulatory system; an increased level is an indicator of kidney dysfunction
  77. Creatinine clearance test
    Test of kidney functions that measures the rate which nitrogenous waste is removed from the blood by comparing its concentration in the blood and urine over a 24 hour period
  78. Glomerular filtration rate
    The amount f blood that s filtered by the glomeruli of the kidneys. The rate is decreased when the kidneys are dysfunctional
  79. Cystourethroscopy
    Visual examination of the bladder and urethra, often with a biopsy of the ureter
  80. Intravenous urography
    Radiographic imaging of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder without a contrast medium
  81. Nephrotomography
    sectional radiographic exam of the kidneys
  82. Voiding cystourethrography
    Radiographing imaging of the urinary bladder and urethra done with a contrast medium while patient is urinating
  83. Biopsy
    Taking a piece of tissue for a microscopic study. A closed biopsy is done by an endoscopy of aspiration (by suction through a fine needle).
  84. Cytoscopy
    Visual examination of the urinary bladder using a cystoscope
  85. Catheter
    • Hollow, flexible tube that can be inserted into a vessel, organ, or cavity of the body to withdraw or instill fluid, monitor types of the body to
    • withdraw or instill fluid monitor types of various information, and visualize a vessel or cavity
  86. Cytoscope
    instrument for visual examination of the inside of the bladder
  87. Laparoscope
    Type of endoscope, consisting of illuminated tube with an optical system, inserted through the abdominal wall fir examining the peritoneal cavity
  88. Lithotripter
    A machine that is used to crush stones, especially in ESWL
  89. Lithotrite
    Instrument used to crush calculus in the urinary bladder; fragments may then be expelled or washed out
  90. Nephroscope
    • – Fiberoptic instrument used specifically for the disintegration and removal of renal calculi; an ultrasonic prove emitting high- frequency sound
    • waves breaks up the calculi, which are removed my suction through the scope
  91. Stent
    Tubular devices for supporting hollow structures during surgical anastomosis or for holding arteries open after angioplasty
  92. Urinometer
    Type of hydrometer used to measure the specific gravity (SG) of a urine sample, also known as a urometer
  93. ileal conduit
    channel, pipe or tube that guides urine from urteres to the ileum in the digestive system to be excreted through the large intestines (aka ureteroilestomy)
  94. Lithotripsy
    • Process of crushing stones either to prevent or clean an obstruction in the urinary system; crushing may be done manually, by high-energy shock waves,
    • or by pulsed dye laser. In each case the fragments maybe expelled naturally or washed out. Use of shock is termed extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy
  95. Nephrectomy
    restriction of the kidney
  96. Nephrolithotomy
    incision of the kidney for removal or a kidney stone.
  97. Nephropexy
    suspension of a fixation of the kidney
  98. Nephrostolithotomy
    removal of a stone from the kidney through a preexisting nephrostomy
  99. Nephrostomy
    Opening made n the kidney so that a catheter can be inserted
  100. Neohrotomy
    incision of the kidney
  101. Transurethral procedure
    Any procedure conducted through the urethra
  102. Urethrolysis
    Destruction of the adhesions of the urethra
  103. vesicotomy






    Vesicotomy
    Incision of the urinary bladder.
  104. Renal dialysis
    • Process of diffusing blood across a semipermeable membrane to remove substances that a healthy kidney would eliminate, including poisons, drugs,
    • urea, uric acid, and creatine.
  105. Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis
    • Type of renal dialysis in which an indwelling catheter in the abdomen permits fluid to drain into and out of the peritoneal cavity to cleanse the
    • blood.
  106. Hemodialysis
    Type of renal dialysis that cleanses the blood by shunting it from the body through a machine for diffusion and ultrafiltraion and then returning it to the patients circulation.
  107. Renal transplant
    Surgical transfer of a complete kidney from a donor to a recipient.

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