Chapter 25 Metabolism
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Where are the two centers that regulate the intake of food located? What are they?
Located in hypothalamus
- feeding (hunger) center
- satiety center
Which center that regulates food intake is constantly active?
feeding (hunger) center
What inhibits the feeding (hunger) center for a short time?
Molecule capable of storing energy within it's bonds for powering chemical reactions within the body
- adenosine triphosphate
A series of decomposition reactions that degrade complex substances into simpler molecules
a series of synthesis reactions whereby small molecules are combined to form more complex molecules
Anabolism is an ___________ reaction.
- endergonic reaction
- energy goes in
Catabolism is an _____________ reaction.
A substance that speeds up a chemical reaction without being consumed in the reaction
Biological catalysts belong to a class of proteins called...
How do enzymes speed up the rate of a reaction?
by lowering its activation energy
What is activation energy?
the energy needed to start a reaction
The rate of an enzymatic reaction is a function of...
temperature and pH
The removal of electrons from a molecule which results in a decrease in the energy content of the molecule
the addition of electrons to a molecule
What is the body's preferred source of ATP (energy)?
The fate of absorbed glucose depends on what?
the energy needs of the body
What happens to absorbed glucose if the cells require energy?
glucose is oxidized by the cells to produce ATP
Excess glucose in the body is handed in what ways?
used to form amino acids used in protein anabolism
can be converted and stored by the liver an skeletal muscles as glycogen (glycogenesis), used as needed to fuel muscles
if glycogen storage areas are full, glucose is converted to glycerol > fatty acids> triglycerides> stored in fat tissue (unlimited storage potential).
excess that can't be processed is excreted in urine
Glucose that exceeds the metabolic processing abilities of the body is excreted into the....
Name in order 4 successive pathways (stages) of the complete oxidation of glucose to CO2 and H2O producing large amounts of energy
- the formation of acetyl coenzyme A
- the citric acid cycle
- electron transport chain
What happens to pyruvic acid if oxygen is present?
it enters the mitochondria and is converted to acetyl coenzyme A
What happens to pyruvic acid if oxygen is not present?
- it remains outside the mitochondria and is consumed in the production of small amounts of ATP
- lactic acid is the byproduct
In the citric acid cycle oxygen is ____________, but not _______________.
The end energy product of 2 rotations of the citric acid cycle
- 4 molecules CO2
- 2 molecules ATP
- 6 molecules NADH
- 2 molecules FADH2
Where is most energy made?
electron transport chain
How many molecules of ATP are produced at the end of the the electron transport chain? How many molecules of H2O?
The final oxygen atom in the electron transport chain captures the cascading hydrogen electron at the bottom of the hill to form...
What are inorganic substances that help regulate body processes? Name some of the more important ones.
What are organic nutrients that help to maintain growth and normal metabolism? Name the 2 types
- fat soluble
- water soluble
Fat soluble vitamins
- K, A, D, E
- emulsified in the small intestine
- most stored in the liver
Water soluble vitamins
- B, C
- absorbed with water in the GI tract
- excess excreted with the urine
- not stored very well
What does undernutrition result from? Name examples.
- anorexia nervosa
- chronic diarrhea
- diabetes mellitus
- GI obstructions
The loss of glycogen energy stores
Starvation in which there is deficient protein intake accompanied by liver damage and ascites
Starvation in which there is inadequate intake of both proteins and calories
A genetic error of metabolism where the body cannot break down the amino acid phenylalanine and it builds up
What system does in damage in infants?
- Phenylketonuria (PKU)
- the nervous system
Inborn error of metabolism in which gluten destroys the GI villi in the small intestine resulting in malabsorption
6 major classes of food molecules
In the Formation of acetyl coenzyme A is oxygen required?
Yes, it is required but not consumed
Minerals make up what percentage of the bodies weight?
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