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Healthy pH range
Healthy PCO2 range
Healthy PO2 range
Healthy HCO3 range
Normal Sodium Range
Normal Potassium Level
Normal Magnesium Level
Normal Chloride Level
Normal Bicarbonate Level
Normal Phosphate Level
Chief electrolyte of ECF - Regulates volume of body fluid - Cation
Cheif regulator of cellular enzymes and water content - Major ICF - Cation
Sodium and Potassium
Work together for electrical impulses and help with regulating acid base balance
Nerve impulses - blood clotting - muscle contraction
maintains osmotic pressure in blood
Primary Buffer System
For cell division and heredity traits
Functions of water in body
- Transports nutrients, hormones, enzymes, platelets, red and white blood cells.
- Facilitates cellular functioning
- Acts as solvent for electrolyes and non electrolytes
- Facilitates digestion
- Acts as tissue lubricant
ICF and ECF water percentages
- ICF = 70%
- ECF = 30% - ECF is Pericardial fluid, intraocular, sweat, digestive secretions, intravascular fluid.
Healthy person water %
Infant water %
- 50 - 60 % in healthy adult
- Infant up to 80%
What are the sources of fluids for the body?
- Ingested Liquids
Substances that dissasociate into charged particles
+ charged particles
- charged particles
Liqiuds that hold a solute
Substances that are dissolved in a solution
Fluid that passes through membrane due to higher osmolarity until equlibrium is reached
Pulling force through a membrane
Equal molarity on both sides of membrane
Greater osmolarity than plasma(.9%)
Lesser osmolarity than plasma(.9%)
Movement of solutes in a solvent to lesser concentrations until equilibrium is reached.
Movement of solutes through a membrane to lesser concentrations with the use of ATP. "Flows uphill"
Passage of fluid through a membrane due to pressure.
Pushing force out of a venule
Colloid Osmotic Pressure
Pulling force through a membrane due to a greater pressure outside a venule.
Amount of fluid kidneys filter
Amount of fluid we excrete p/day
- 180L per day
- 1.5 L per day
Aldosterone form adrenal glands and what it does
Retains sodium and calcium and water causes potassium to be excreted
Thryoxine is excreted from thyroid and what it does
Increases blood flow in the body leading to increased renal function and output
Regulates the level of calcium and phosphorus
Sense changes in ECF - Send signals to pituitary gland to release of inhibit ADH accoring to ECF fluid concentration
Lack of protein albumen. Binds to electrolytes. Helps maintain colloidal osmotic pressure. Lack of this protein can result in third space shift.
Balance of bicarbonate and carbonic acid
- Bicarbonate : Carbonic Acid
- Sodium Deficient or gain of water in the ECF.
- Fluid moves from ECF to ICF and causes cellular swelling.
Surplus of sodium in the ECF. Excess sodium or lack of water. ICF flows into ECF space causing cellular shrinkage and insufficient fluid.
- Lack of potassium in ECF.
- Common with electrolyte imbalance. Potassium moves from ICF to ECF causing lack of K in ICF.
Excess potassium in ECF. Occurs less than Hypokalemia and caridac irregularities can result.
Lack of calcium in ECF. Common signs are numbness and tingling in the fingers, muscle cramps and tetany.
Excess calcium in ECF. This is a true emergency due to the risk of caridac arrest. Cancer and hypothyroidism are causes.
Refers to magnesium deficit. May lead to heart block, change in mental status, respiratory paralysis.
Refers to a magnesium excess in the ECF. It can occur on the end stage of renal failure.
Below serum level concentration of phosphourus in the ECF>
Above serum levels of phospherous. Causes impaired kidney excretion and hypothyroidism.
High amounts of carbonic acid in the ECF due to decrease in alveolar ventilation.
Deficit of carbonic acid in the ECF. Result of alveolar hyperventilation.
Metabolic Acidosis (non-respiratory acidosis)
Deficit of bicarbonate in teh ECF. Either by excess of acid or loss of bicarbonate
Metabolic Alkalosis (Non-respiratory alkalosis)
Associated with rise in bicarbonate and or dropping of acids in blood. The body attempts to compensate with raising of CO2. Breathing then will become shallow and completely stop.
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