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5 basic activities involved in digestion.
- Ingestion- Taking food in
- Movement- of food along digestive tract
- Digestion- breakdown of food by both mechanical and chemical processes
- Absorption- passage of digested food from the GI tract to the circulatory system.
- Defecation- Elimination of indigestible substances from the body
GI tract AKA?
What is the Gastrointestinal tract?
a tubular structure that runs from the mouth to the anus.
Accessory structures of the digestive system
- salivary glands
4 layers of the GI tract
- Serosa (visceral peritoneum)
3 sublayers of the submucosa
- epithelial mucosa
- lamina propria
- mucosal muscularis
What is the mucosal muscalris?
sublayer that contains muscle fibers that contract to throw the mucosa into small folds which increase the absorptive area
What does the submucosa consist of?
What does the submucosal plexus do?
Regulates blood flow in the intestines.
What does the muscularis layer of the GI tract contain? What does it do?
Myenteric plexus (plexus of auerbach) which contains autonomic nerve fibers that control GI tract mobility.
What is the parietal peritoneum?
serous membrane that lines the wall of the abdominal cavity.
What is visceral peritoneum?
An extension of the parietal peritoneum that covers the serosa of the GI tract and several other organs.
The space between the parietal and visceral peritoneum?
What are the peritoneal folds?
- falciform ligament
- lesser omentum
- greater omentum
supports the large intestine
attaches the liver to the abdominal wall and diaphram
supports the stomach
greater omentum (apron
contains many fat and lymph nodes
Supports the small intestine
What is the mouth formed by?
- The cheeks
- hard/soft palate
What forms the boundary of the mouth?
What kind of tissue are the lips?
What attaches the lips to their respective gums?
opening between palatoglossal arches leading to the pharynx
What dangles between the palatoglossal arches?
What initiates the breakdown of starch by reducing long polysaccharides?
3 sets of salivary glands
located in front of the end underneath the ears
viral infection of the parotid glands
lie below and inside the mandibular angles
Lie immediately underneath the tongue.
part of the tooth above the level of the gums
neck of tooth
constricted portion between the crown and root. Surrounded by gums
Root of tooth
filled with pulp
32 permanent teeth
Front 4 teeth
Incisors- adapted for biting
on each side of the incisors
canine tooth- pointed for tearing
(bicuspid)- cut and shear food
3 on each side of the jaw- equipped for grinding
Next major organ involved in swallowing after mouth is?
behind the trachea and pierces the diaphram at the esophageal hiatus
What permits food into the stomach?
Stomach is divided into ___areas, they are?
How long does it take the stomach to empty its contents?
Order of digestion
- fats are no digested in the stomach
Which surface of the stomach has large folds called rugae?
Chief (zymogenic) cells secrete?
Parietal cells produce
- hydrochloric acid
- intrinsic factor
Enteroendocrine (gastrin) cells produce?
A head which has a ____ that joins the _________ to form the _______that empties both bile and pancreatic fluids into the proximal portion of the duodenum through the____?
- pancreatic duct
- common bile duct
- ampula of vater
- sphincter of oddi
Pancreatic amaylase digests?
Pancreatic Lipase digest?
What and where is fat emulified?
In the live by alkaline bile
The cystic duct connects with the gallbladder, joins the common hepatic duct and, at that point, becomes the common bile duct
Small intestine is divided into?
How long is the duodenum?
The lumen of the small intestine is lined with?
Each villus contains
an arteriole, venule,lymph vessel
Lymph vessel in the villus of the small intestine?
Crypts of Lieberkuhn cells
- Enteroendocrine cells
- paneth cells
- secrete cholecystokinin
- gastric inhibitory peptide
blind pouch below the ileocecal valve to which the vermiform appendix is attached.
Colon divided into 4 parts?
- Ascending colon
- transverse colon
- descending colon
- sigmoid colon
Last section of the GI tract?
Where is the defecation reflex mediated
Nerve centers in the sacral portion of the spinal cord
Ulcers are usually created by?
Inflammation of the vermiform appendix
Diverticulitis is treated with?
High fiber diets and/or surgery