G.I. Pathology

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G.I. Pathology
2010-11-05 19:28:30

G.I. Pathology
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  1. The greates amount of digestion occurs in the:
  2. Bile is a ____.
  3. Liver damage may result in:
    Edema and a serious bleeding tendency
  4. About 50% of acquired fistulas between the trachea and esophagus are caused by:
    malignancy in the mediastinum
  5. Most common cause of acute esophagitis:
    reflux of gastric acid contents
  6. A condition related to severe reflux esophagitis in which the normal squamous lining of the lower esophagus is destroyed and replaced by columnar epithelium similar to that of the stomach:
    Barrett's Esophagus
  7. Most common drug causing esophageal ulceration:
    potassium chloride in tablet form
  8. Most carcinomas of the esophagus are of the ___ cell type and occur most often at the:
    squamous; esophagogastric junction
  9. When esophageal diverticulum fill with food or secretions, ____ may result.
    aspiration pneumonia
  10. Dilated veins in the wall of the esophagus that are most commonly the result of increased pressure in the portal venous system:
    esophageal varices
  11. Most common abnormality detected on an upper g.i. exam:
    hiatal hernia
  12. A functional obstruction of the distal section of the esophagus with proximal dilation caused by incomplete relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter:
  13. Most common cause of esohpagus perforation:
    severe vomitting
  14. Gastritis can be caused by:
    irritants including alcohol, corrosive agents, and infection
  15. Changes the normal pattern of the gastric mucosa:
  16. An emulsifier that acts like soap by dispersing fat into very small droplets that permit it to mix with water:
  17. toxic chemicals are changed into nontoxic compounds in the:
  18. How much bile do the liver cells secrete each day?
    1 pint
  19. Most common cause of acute esophagitis:
    Reflux of gastric acid contents
  20. Organisms most responsible for infectious esophagitis:
    Candida and herpesvirus
  21. Most common cause of acute upper g.i. bleeding:
    peptic ulcer disease
  22. Most common manifestation of peptic ulcer disease:
    duodenal ulcer
  23. Gastric ulcers usually occur on the:
    lesser curvature of the stomach
  24. Cronic inflammatory disorder of unknocn cause that most often involves the terminal area of the ileum:
    Crohn's Disease (Regional Enteritis)
  25. Chrohn's disease can affect:
    any part of the G.I. tract
  26. What accounts for almost 75% of all small bowel obstructions?
    Fibrous adhesions caused by previous surgery of peritonitis
  27. A common disorder of intestinal motor activity in which fluid and gas do not progress normally through a nonobstructed small and large bowel:
    Adynamic Ileus
  28. Symptoms and signs of appendicitis:
    right lower quadrant pain, low-grade fever and slight leukocytosis
  29. Outpouchings that represent acquired herniations of mucosa and submucosa through the muscular layers at points of weakness into the bowel wall:
    colonic diverticula
  30. Diverticula occur most commonly in the ____ and decrease in frequency in the _____.
    sigmoid colon; proximal colon
  31. It is estimated that 20% of patients with diverticulosis with eventually develop:
  32. Sypmtoms of ulcerative colitis:
    bloody diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, and weight loss
  33. What area of the colon is most often associated with Crohn's disease:
    proximal portion
  34. Second major cause of inflammatory bowel disease:
    Crohn's disease
  35. Several conditions that have an alteration in intestinal motility as the underlying pathophysiologic abnormalitie:
    Irritable Bowel Syndrome
  36. Third leading cause of death from cancer in the U.S.:
    Carcinoma of the colon
  37. About 70% of large bowel obstructions result from:
    primary colonic carcinoma
  38. Twisting of the bowel on itself:
  39. Two major types of gallstones:
    cholesterol stones and pigment stones
  40. What condition often occurs after obstruction of the cystic duct by an impacted gallstone?
    Acute cholycystitis
  41. An end-stage liver disease refering to the chronic destruction of liver cells and structure:
    cirrhosis of the liver
  42. Most common malignant tumors involving the liver:
  43. Once diagnosed with hepatic metastases, most patients face:
    imminent death within months
  44. Inflammatory process in which protein and lipid digesting enzymes become activated within the pancreas and begin to digest the organ itself:
    acute pancreatitis
  45. Most common cause of acute pancreatitis:
    excessive alcohol consumption
  46. Condition resulting from frequent intermittent injury to the pancreas causing increasing damage that produces scar tissue:
    chronic pancreatitis
  47. Most common pancreatic malignancy:
  48. Visualization of which structures indicates that the correct contrast scale has been used for a plain abdominal radiograph?
    liver, kidneys, psoas muscles, lumbar spine and transverse processes
  49. Which organ controls the level of glucose in the circulating blood?
  50. The telescoping of one part of the intestinal tract into another:
  51. What is now considered the major modality for the demonstration of gallstones?
  52. Rupture of the spleen as a result of blunt abdominal trauma can be best demonstrated by what imaging procedure?
  53. Extensive calcification in the wall of the gallbladder is termed:
    porcelain gallbladder
  54. Apple-core or napkin-ring are common descriptive terms for annular carcinoma of the:
  55. The presence of large amounts of gas and fluid in uniformly dilated loops of small and large bowel, often seen after abdominal surgery, is termed:
    adynamic ileus
  56. To demonstrate esophageal reflux, the patient is often asked to perform the:
    valsava maneuver
  57. Abnormal accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity:
  58. A colonic intussusception can sometimes be reduced by what procedure?
    barium enema
  59. Most common manifestation of peptic ulcer disease:
    duodenal ulcer
  60. If loops of bowel are distended by abnormally large amounts of air and are occupying the central portion of the abdomen, the patient likely has a:
    small bowel obstruction