What did the earliest studies of primates focus on and who began studying them?
The earliest studies by Edward Tyson and T.H. Huxley focused on comparative primate anatomy. They studied the links between form and function especially skeletal studies like locomotion and diet.
What did the early behavioral studies of primates focus on?
Early behavioral studies were unsystematic and focused on cative animals in zoos, colonies, and laboratories.
How did studying primates change after WWII? And who were the main researchers and what did they study?
After WWII people began studying free-ranging primates in their natural habitats using an evolutionary perspective. Washburn and DeVore- baboons, Jane Goodall- chimpanzees, Dian Fossey- gorillas, Birute Galdikas- Orangutans.
Why are field studies so important?
They minimize human interference and "unnatural behaviors."
They help us understand the links between their environment and their behavior.
Interrelationships of animals, plants, and physical environment.
Define behavioral ecology.
Behaviors evolved through natural selection within the context of particular environments.
What are some techniques for studying behavior?
What the animal does and how often it does it.
Involvement of other individuals.
Use of space and resources.
What are some techniques for studying ecological context?
Food availability (type & distribution), othersympatric species, predators, etc.
Human influence (hunting, habitat alteration, etc.)
What have we learned about non-human primates?
Links between morphology & ecology/behavior
Primates are extremely social and live lives that are behaviorally complex
Some non-human primates make and use tools
Some non-human primates have culture
Some non-human primates eat meat and hunt cooperatively
What are some things we have learned about the links between morphology and ecology? Example?
We have learned about the form and finction of certain body proportions. For example long arms in the gibbon allow it to swing from branches easily.
What are some advantages and disadvantages of being in permanent social groups?
Disadvantages: competition for food, visibility to predators, competition for mates, risk of social tension and violence.
Advantages: Predator defense, access to food, mate access, assistance in care of young.
What are the types of primate social groups and give examples for each.
Semi-solitary: Orangutans, nocturnal prosimians.
Monogomous Pairs: Gibbons.
One Female/ Multi-male (Polyandry): Marmosets, tamarins.
One Male/ Multi-female ( sometimes Polygyny): Gorillas.
Multi-male/ Multi-female: Baboons, macaques.
Fission- Fusion (Type of multi-male/multi-female group): Chimpanzees.
What factors influence social structure?
Body size and metabolism.
High predation pressures often lead to larger groups.
Food availability and distribution.
Dispersal, when they leave the natal group.
Remaining in one's natal group or home range as an adult.
Set of learned behaviors transmitted from one generation to the next by non-biological(non-genetic) means.
Define sexual selection.
Type of natural selection that operates on only one sex; the result ofcompetition for mates.
What traits distinguish us from our closest relatives?
Tools & Technology
Language & Symbolic Thinking
Large Brain Size
In what fashion did humans evolve?
Humans evolved in a peacemeal fashion with different functional systems evolving at different times.
When did the earliest hominins live?
What are the distinctive traits of bipedalism?
Foramen magnum is closer to the front of the skull, curved spine, shorter and wider illium, femur angled inward toward knees, knee joint angled, feet have arches.
What are some of the early hypotheses on why humans are bipedal?
Bipedal to carry objects, use tools, visual surveillance, hunt and gather food.
What are some advantages and disadvantages of bipedalism?
Disadvantages: Birth more difficult, lower back pain, infant clinging.
Advantages: Long distance travel, carrying/manipulating, improved view, effective displays.
What is the most current hypothesis for the reason of bipedalism?
Most current hypothesis links bipedalism to climate change. They think that the climate became cooler and drier and caused the forests to break up. This created the need to travel in order to get food. Bipedalism makes travel easier.
Who came up with the seed eating model and what did it imply?
Jolly came up with it in 1970, and it implied that bipedalism happened so seed and nut eating was easier. The problems with this model is that the reliance on seeds alone is unlikely, and there is very little support for it.
Who came up with the "Demographic Dillema" or male provisioning hypothesis and what is it?
Lovejoy was the one who thought of it in 1981. The hypothesis states that there are two problems that have two evolutionary solutions. Problem 1: too k-selected, evolutionary solution: reduced birth spacing. Problem 2: too many dependent offspring, evolutionary solution:increased male investment.
Who came up with the temperature regulation hypothesis and what is it?
Wheeler came up with it in 1991, and it states that bipedalism happened in order to reduce heat stress. The problem with this is that eary bipedalism most likely took place in woodlands not savannahs.
What is the energy effeciency hypothesis and who came up with it?
Rodman and McHenry in 1980, states that changes in climate caused resources to disperse. In order to get to food sources, ape terrestrial locomotion was inneficient, bipedalism more efficient for traveling. Good Support!
Objects made or modified for use by hominins.
Immovable residue of human occupation.
The study of how bones and other materials came to be buried in the earth and preserved as fossils.
What are the two dating methods and define each.
Relative dating: Time period compared to others, like looking at sediment.
Absolute dating: Using dates, methods: radiometric like potassium/argon and argon/argon, also paleomagnetism and biostratigraphy.
Describe homo habilis.
2.4-1.4 mya, moderately expanded brain, new stone tool techonologies.
What are oldowan tools?
They are crude and informal and were used by homo habilis. They are the earliest stone tool type, uses cores and flakes as tools.
Describe homo erectus.
1.8 mya-50,000 ya, changes: geographic distribution, body/size proportions, brain size, facial and dental reduction, new stone tool technology.
What are some distinguishing features of homo erectus?
Supraorbital torus, nuchal torus, sagittal keel, shovel-shaped incisors.
What are achuelian tools?
First appeared 1.4 mya, sophisticated, used by homo erectus.
What are neadertals and when were they first around?
Neandertals were from 40,000 years ago, and they have large brains, prominate arching brow ridges, midfacial prognathism, occipital bun, retromolar space, and no chin.
What are mousterian tools?
They are complex tools and are used by neandertals, and they have a prepared core technique to produce flakes.