Parmacology 7 and 8

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Parmacology 7 and 8
2010-11-22 18:44:25

Pharmacology 7 and 8
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  1. The study of the effect or outcome elicited by drugs when they reach the site of action:
  2. The three pharmacodynamic effects of drugs are:
    therapeutic, diagnostic, adverse
  3. Diagnostic effects of intravascular ROCM are a function of the:
    iodine contained within them
  4. Serum iodine concentration for x-ray must be within the range of:
    280-370 mg/ml
  5. ROCM must contain ____ proportion of iodine and injected at a rate ___ than blood flow.
    large; greater
  6. For CT or angiography, serum iodine concentration musts be in the range of ____-____ and injected at a rate ___ than blood flow:
    2-8 mg/ml; slower
  7. One out of every ___-___ patietns receiving ROCM dies from adverse effects.
  8. Adverse effects of ROCM depend on:
    serum or tissue iodine concentration, osmolality, calcium chelation, anti-coagulation, and immune system stimulating abilites
  9. ROCM increases osmotic pressure; termed:
  10. Heart rhythm disturbance characterized by electrical impulses without cardiac contraction:
    PEA; pulseless electrical activity
  11. Calcium chelation caused by ROCM may result in:
    PEA, cardiac arrest and sudden death
  12. Aticoagulation effects may be caused by ____ ROCM:
  13. Immediately life-threatening systemic hypersensitivity reaction:
  14. Anaphylaxis is generally referred to as a type 1 hypersensitivity reaction, which requires a:
    first time reaction in the patient's history
  15. Reaction that mimics the anaphylactic reaction, but no prior exposure to ROCM is necessary to 'sensitize" the mast cell:
  16. ROCM are responsible for approximately 10% of all:
    acute renal failure (ARF)
  17. Urine output of less than 400 ml/day:
    Oliguric ARF
  18. A condition in which the body becomes unable to tolerate thyroid hormones:
    decompensated thyrotoxicosis
  19. Iodine from ROCM may cause the thyroid to produce amounts of thyroid hormone that exceed the body's tolerance level in patients with decompensated thyrotoxicosis:
    Thyroid Storm
  20. ROCM may cause sickling of RBCs or ARF in patients with:
    sickle cell anemia/multiple myeloma
  21. Adverse CNS effects of ROCM:
    nervousness, anxiety, confusion, tremors, agitation, seizures.
  22. An expected outcome of injected contrast media is a ____ while an unexpected outcome is a ___.
    side effect/reaction
  23. Common side effects of ROCM:
    metallic taste and temorary hot flash
  24. Why should ROCM not be used in pregnant patients?
    Because it crosses the placental barrier
  25. Signs and sypmtoms of _____ include fever, tachycardia, diaphoresis, agitation, nervousness, and emotional instability.
    Thyroid Storm
  26. What are used to improve delivery of ROCM to small arteries that may be inaccessible otherwise?
  27. 5 rights of drug administration:
    Right: patient, drug, amount, time and route
  28. Common routes of administration:
    Oral, Sublingual, Topical, Rectal and Parenteral
  29. Most common method of drug administration:
  30. Why is oral administration the most perferred route?
    Safest, most econoical and convenient
  31. Most drugs undergo absorption in the:
    small intestine
  32. When a drug is given orally rather than parenterally, the effects are generally:
    slower and less efficient
  33. A major advantage of the oral route is that it allows for the easiest:
    retrieval of a drug in overdose situations
  34. Drugs administered vie the sublingual route will gain access to the general circulation without traversing the _____ or being affected by gastric and intestinal ____.
    liver; enzymes
  35. Drug administration route used when the oral method is unsuitable:
    rectal route
  36. The four most common methods by which drugs are administered parenterally:
    intradermal, subcutaneous, intramuscular, intravenous
  37. Most hazardous route by which to give a drug:
  38. Direct injection into a vein is warranted when:
    immediate effects of a drug are desired
  39. Most common intravenous injection sites:
    Basilic/cephalic veins on back of hand, basilic vein on forearm/elbow, cephaic vein on forearm/elbow, medial cubital vein (most common)
  40. Drug/blood leakage into the tissues surrounding a vein is termed:
  41. If extravasation occurs:
    remove needle immediately, apply pressure, and warm moist cloth to site
  42. Contraindications to Barium Sulfate:
    pre-surgical patients, perforated alimentary canal, large intestine obstruction
  43. Contraindications to water soluble contrast media:
    young/dehydrated patients or sensitive to iodine
  44. If two incompatible drugs must be administered to a patient:
    saline flashing is advisable to avoid drug-drug interaction
  45. The difference between conscious sedation and general anesthesia is the:
  46. Medications in the radiology department used for conscious sedation include:
    barbituate, benzodiazepine, and opiate analgesic
  47. The highest survival rate of cardiac arrest occurs in patients who receive CPR within __ minutes and who are additionally provided medications within __ minutes.
  48. The most valuable, potentially life-saving therapeutic agent available to cardiac arrest victims:
  49. Two groups of microorganisms:
    helpful (normal microbial flora) and harmful (pathogens)
  50. Microorganisms capable of causing disease are:
  51. Any place where pathogens can trhive in sufficient numbers to pose a threat:
    reservoir of infection
  52. Any route through which blood or fluids leave the body:
    portal of exit
  53. Suceptible hosts include:
    patients with reduced natural resistance or prone to nosocomial infections
  54. The route by which microorganisms gain access to the host:
    portal of entry
  55. Transmission of disease, 6 routes:
    direct contact, fomite, vector, vehicle, airborne contamination, droplet contamination
  56. A nonliving material such as a bed linen that may transmit microorganisms:
  57. An organism that can harbor and transmit disease:
  58. Droplets <5 microns:
    airborn contamination
  59. Droplets of >5 microns:
    droplet contamination
  60. Three defense mechanisms:
    Natural resistance, acquired immunity, passive immunity
  61. The destruction of pathogens by using chemical materials:
  62. Free of living microorganisms, the process of destroying all microorganisms: