Parmacology 7 and 8

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Bilon
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47594
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Parmacology 7 and 8
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2010-11-22 18:44:25
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Pharmacology
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Pharmacology 7 and 8
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  1. The study of the effect or outcome elicited by drugs when they reach the site of action:
    pharmacodynamics
  2. The three pharmacodynamic effects of drugs are:
    therapeutic, diagnostic, adverse
  3. Diagnostic effects of intravascular ROCM are a function of the:
    iodine contained within them
  4. Serum iodine concentration for x-ray must be within the range of:
    280-370 mg/ml
  5. ROCM must contain ____ proportion of iodine and injected at a rate ___ than blood flow.
    large; greater
  6. For CT or angiography, serum iodine concentration musts be in the range of ____-____ and injected at a rate ___ than blood flow:
    2-8 mg/ml; slower
  7. One out of every ___-___ patietns receiving ROCM dies from adverse effects.
    20,000-40,000
  8. Adverse effects of ROCM depend on:
    serum or tissue iodine concentration, osmolality, calcium chelation, anti-coagulation, and immune system stimulating abilites
  9. ROCM increases osmotic pressure; termed:
    hyperosmolar
  10. Heart rhythm disturbance characterized by electrical impulses without cardiac contraction:
    PEA; pulseless electrical activity
  11. Calcium chelation caused by ROCM may result in:
    PEA, cardiac arrest and sudden death
  12. Aticoagulation effects may be caused by ____ ROCM:
    high-osmolality
  13. Immediately life-threatening systemic hypersensitivity reaction:
    Anaphylaxis
  14. Anaphylaxis is generally referred to as a type 1 hypersensitivity reaction, which requires a:
    first time reaction in the patient's history
  15. Reaction that mimics the anaphylactic reaction, but no prior exposure to ROCM is necessary to 'sensitize" the mast cell:
    anaphylactoid
  16. ROCM are responsible for approximately 10% of all:
    acute renal failure (ARF)
  17. Urine output of less than 400 ml/day:
    Oliguric ARF
  18. A condition in which the body becomes unable to tolerate thyroid hormones:
    decompensated thyrotoxicosis
  19. Iodine from ROCM may cause the thyroid to produce amounts of thyroid hormone that exceed the body's tolerance level in patients with decompensated thyrotoxicosis:
    Thyroid Storm
  20. ROCM may cause sickling of RBCs or ARF in patients with:
    sickle cell anemia/multiple myeloma
  21. Adverse CNS effects of ROCM:
    nervousness, anxiety, confusion, tremors, agitation, seizures.
  22. An expected outcome of injected contrast media is a ____ while an unexpected outcome is a ___.
    side effect/reaction
  23. Common side effects of ROCM:
    metallic taste and temorary hot flash
  24. Why should ROCM not be used in pregnant patients?
    Because it crosses the placental barrier
  25. Signs and sypmtoms of _____ include fever, tachycardia, diaphoresis, agitation, nervousness, and emotional instability.
    Thyroid Storm
  26. What are used to improve delivery of ROCM to small arteries that may be inaccessible otherwise?
    Vasodilators
  27. 5 rights of drug administration:
    Right: patient, drug, amount, time and route
  28. Common routes of administration:
    Oral, Sublingual, Topical, Rectal and Parenteral
  29. Most common method of drug administration:
    Oral
  30. Why is oral administration the most perferred route?
    Safest, most econoical and convenient
  31. Most drugs undergo absorption in the:
    small intestine
  32. When a drug is given orally rather than parenterally, the effects are generally:
    slower and less efficient
  33. A major advantage of the oral route is that it allows for the easiest:
    retrieval of a drug in overdose situations
  34. Drugs administered vie the sublingual route will gain access to the general circulation without traversing the _____ or being affected by gastric and intestinal ____.
    liver; enzymes
  35. Drug administration route used when the oral method is unsuitable:
    rectal route
  36. The four most common methods by which drugs are administered parenterally:
    intradermal, subcutaneous, intramuscular, intravenous
  37. Most hazardous route by which to give a drug:
    Parenteral
  38. Direct injection into a vein is warranted when:
    immediate effects of a drug are desired
  39. Most common intravenous injection sites:
    Basilic/cephalic veins on back of hand, basilic vein on forearm/elbow, cephaic vein on forearm/elbow, medial cubital vein (most common)
  40. Drug/blood leakage into the tissues surrounding a vein is termed:
    extravasation
  41. If extravasation occurs:
    remove needle immediately, apply pressure, and warm moist cloth to site
  42. Contraindications to Barium Sulfate:
    pre-surgical patients, perforated alimentary canal, large intestine obstruction
  43. Contraindications to water soluble contrast media:
    young/dehydrated patients or sensitive to iodine
  44. If two incompatible drugs must be administered to a patient:
    saline flashing is advisable to avoid drug-drug interaction
  45. The difference between conscious sedation and general anesthesia is the:
    dose
  46. Medications in the radiology department used for conscious sedation include:
    barbituate, benzodiazepine, and opiate analgesic
  47. The highest survival rate of cardiac arrest occurs in patients who receive CPR within __ minutes and who are additionally provided medications within __ minutes.
    4/8
  48. The most valuable, potentially life-saving therapeutic agent available to cardiac arrest victims:
    epinephrine
  49. Two groups of microorganisms:
    helpful (normal microbial flora) and harmful (pathogens)
  50. Microorganisms capable of causing disease are:
    microorganisms
  51. Any place where pathogens can trhive in sufficient numbers to pose a threat:
    reservoir of infection
  52. Any route through which blood or fluids leave the body:
    portal of exit
  53. Suceptible hosts include:
    patients with reduced natural resistance or prone to nosocomial infections
  54. The route by which microorganisms gain access to the host:
    portal of entry
  55. Transmission of disease, 6 routes:
    direct contact, fomite, vector, vehicle, airborne contamination, droplet contamination
  56. A nonliving material such as a bed linen that may transmit microorganisms:
    fomite
  57. An organism that can harbor and transmit disease:
    vector
  58. Droplets <5 microns:
    airborn contamination
  59. Droplets of >5 microns:
    droplet contamination
  60. Three defense mechanisms:
    Natural resistance, acquired immunity, passive immunity
  61. The destruction of pathogens by using chemical materials:
    disinfection
  62. Free of living microorganisms, the process of destroying all microorganisms:
    sterilization

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