# Earth Science Quarter 1

 The flashcards below were created by user twilightauroramist on FreezingBlue Flashcards. direct relationship as the x variable increases, the y variable also increases inverse relationship as the x variable increases, the y variable decreases cyclical relationship as the x variable increases, the y variable increases and decreases in a repeating pattern static relationship as the x variable increases, the y variable remains the same extrapolation when going beyond the data on a graph**although the inference may be on the graph, if it is not expressly stated on the graph, then it is extrapolationextrapolation is a form of inferencing interpolation staying within the given data on a graph What is percentage error and how do you find it? difference between actual and measured x 100 =percentage erroractual answer What is classification and its benefits? Classification is a system of organizing information, data, objects, or events in a meaningful way based on shared properties. Its benefits are:keeps us organizedcan find information or objects quicklyincreases efficiency dichotomous key What is density? The ratio between an object's mass to its volume.- same material, same density, no matter the size phrases to describe graphical relationships patternednon-linearlinearcyclic What are the dependent and independent variables? Dependent - yIndependent - x What are the three ancient evidences of Earth's shape? - top of ship is seen first when coming toward, top of ship is seen last when going away- angle of polaris changes gradually and slowly** polaris's altitude is always equal to one's latitude. polaris can only be seen in the northern hemisphere- shadow of earth on moon during eclipse is always curved and indistinct all prove that earth is spherical What is earth's true shape? Earth is an oblate spheroid, flat on poles, rounder at equator, due to centrifugal force. Therefore, gravity is greater at the poles and less at the equator. What is the best modern evidence of Earth's shape? Satellite photos from outer space. What was Eratosthenes' method for determining circumference? proportiondistance between two points = shadow anglecircumference 360 degrees What is earth's coordinate system based on? (parallels) latitude and (meridians) longitude Latitude - run horizontally- measure degrees north and south of the equator- all parallel- maximum value is 90- never an equal distance apart because earth is an oblate spheroid Longitude - run vertically- measure degrees east and west of the prime meridian, located at Greenwich, England - meet at the poles- at the equator they bulge How large is each time zone? 15 degrees, because 15 degrees x 24 hours = 360 degrees, a full rotation Some time zones aren't exactly 15 degrees due to cities. How are points between latitude and longitude measured? ( ' ) = minutes( " ) = seconds 60 minutes in a degree, 60 seconds in a minute Why did the earth separate into layers? Because when the earth was still forming, the molten parts separated due to density. How is the atmosphere separated? Based on temperature. field a region in which there is a measurable quantity of a given property at every point vector field any field described by both magnitude and direction eg. gravity, magnetism, velocity scalar field only gives amount, size, or magnitude eg. temperature, humidity, rainfall total, speed isolines lines on a map connecting points of equal value Rules for isolines - know the interval- smooth curves- no intersecting- usually follow each other in patterns- can end at the end of page- individual isolines connect points of only one value topographic map a map on which structural features of a landscape are represented in 3-d How to determine slope on maps? closer lines = steeper slopefar lines = low slope determine direction of stream/river flow - when contour lines cross a river, they point away from the direction the river is moving; they point upstream- all streams lead to the ocean- all streams flow from high to low elevation hatcher marks - indicate depressions- same elevation as the lowest value of the adjacent lines contour interval difference in value between any two adjacent contour lines Authortwilightauroramist ID47600 Card SetEarth Science Quarter 1 Descriptionlucher Updated2010-11-06T00:57:48Z Show Answers