Earth Science Quarter 1

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Earth Science Quarter 1
2010-11-05 20:57:48
earth science

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  1. direct relationship
    • as the x variable increases, the y variable also increases
  2. inverse relationship
    • as the x variable increases, the y variable decreases
  3. cyclical relationship
    • as the x variable increases, the y variable increases and decreases in a repeating pattern
  4. static relationship
    • as the x variable increases, the y variable remains the same
  5. extrapolation
    • when going beyond the data on a graph
    • **although the inference may be on the graph, if it is not expressly stated on the graph, then it is extrapolation
    • extrapolation is a form of inferencing
  6. interpolation
    staying within the given data on a graph
  7. What is percentage error and how do you find it?
    • difference between actual and measured x 100 =percentage error
    • actual answer
  8. What is classification and its benefits?
    Classification is a system of organizing information, data, objects, or events in a meaningful way based on shared properties.

    • Its benefits are:
    • keeps us organized
    • can find information or objects quickly
    • increases efficiency

    dichotomous key
  9. What is density?
    • The ratio between an object's mass to its volume.
    • - same material, same density, no matter the size
  10. phrases to describe graphical relationships
    • patterned
    • non-linear
    • linear
    • cyclic
  11. What are the dependent and independent variables?
    • Dependent - y
    • Independent - x
  12. What are the three ancient evidences of Earth's shape?
    • - top of ship is seen first when coming toward, top of ship is seen last when going away
    • - angle of polaris changes gradually and slowly
    • ** polaris's altitude is always equal to one's latitude. polaris can only be seen in the northern hemisphere
    • - shadow of earth on moon during eclipse is always curved and indistinct

    all prove that earth is spherical
  13. What is earth's true shape?
    Earth is an oblate spheroid, flat on poles, rounder at equator, due to centrifugal force. Therefore, gravity is greater at the poles and less at the equator.
  14. What is the best modern evidence of Earth's shape?
    Satellite photos from outer space.
  15. What was Eratosthenes' method for determining circumference?
    • proportion
    • distance between two points = shadow angle
    • circumference 360 degrees
  16. What is earth's coordinate system based on?
    (parallels) latitude and (meridians) longitude
  17. Latitude
    • - run horizontally
    • - measure degrees north and south of the equator
    • - all parallel
    • - maximum value is 90
    • - never an equal distance apart because earth is an oblate spheroid
  18. Longitude
    • - run vertically
    • - measure degrees east and west of the prime meridian, located at Greenwich, England
    • - meet at the poles
    • - at the equator they bulge
  19. How large is each time zone?
    15 degrees, because 15 degrees x 24 hours = 360 degrees, a full rotation

    Some time zones aren't exactly 15 degrees due to cities.
  20. How are points between latitude and longitude measured?
    • ( ' ) = minutes
    • ( " ) = seconds

    60 minutes in a degree, 60 seconds in a minute
  21. Why did the earth separate into layers?
    Because when the earth was still forming, the molten parts separated due to density.
  22. How is the atmosphere separated?
    Based on temperature.
  23. field
    a region in which there is a measurable quantity of a given property at every point
  24. vector field
    any field described by both magnitude and direction

    eg. gravity, magnetism, velocity
  25. scalar field
    only gives amount, size, or magnitude

    eg. temperature, humidity, rainfall total, speed
  26. isolines
    lines on a map connecting points of equal value
  27. Rules for isolines
    • - know the interval
    • - smooth curves
    • - no intersecting
    • - usually follow each other in patterns
    • - can end at the end of page
    • - individual isolines connect points of only one value
  28. topographic map
    a map on which structural features of a landscape are represented in 3-d
  29. How to determine slope on maps?
    • closer lines = steeper slope
    • far lines = low slope
  30. determine direction of stream/river flow
    • - when contour lines cross a river, they point away from the direction the river is moving; they point upstream
    • - all streams lead to the ocean
    • - all streams flow from high to low elevation
  31. hatcher marks
    • - indicate depressions
    • - same elevation as the lowest value of the adjacent lines
  32. contour interval
    difference in value between any two adjacent contour lines