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caused by migraines, glaucoma, visual pathway disorders
what kind of vision loss does macular degeneration cause? glaucoma?
- mac: central
- glaucoma: periph
sensitivity to light
what could cause night blindness?
- optic atrophy (r/t age)
- vit A deficiency
excessive tearing / watering
define myopia & hyperopia
- myopia: near sighted
- hyper: far sighted
- OD: right eye
- OS: left eye (sinister)
- OU: both eyes
** on do not use list of abbrevs.
what is the Snellen chart used for?
testing central vision acuity
Snellen vision test requirement to drive in CA?
at what age does it occur?
decreased power of accommodation of the eye with aging --> why ppl need to wear reading glasses
cranial nerves responsible for eye mvmt
CN 3, 4, 6
which eye mm are innervated by CN4 and CN6? CN3?
- CN4: superior oblique
- CN6: lateral rectus
- CN3: all others
name all mm associated with eye mvmt
- superior rectus
- inferior rectus
- lateral rectus
- medial rectus
- superior oblique
- inferior oblique
which oblique m is responsible of downward mvmt? for upward?
- down: superior
- up: inferior
which nerve and m are responsible for eye mvmt horizontal and temporal?
which nerve and m are responsible for eye mvmt up and temporal?
which nerve and m are responsible for eye mvmt down and temporal?
which nerve and m are responsible for eye mvmt horizontal and nasal?
which nerve and m are responsible for eye mvmt up and nasal
which nerve and m are responsible for eye mvmt down and nasal?
3 tests for extraocular mm fx
- EOM = extra ocular mvmt: the finger at 6 cardinal positions of gaze
- corneal light reflex: tests parallel alignment of eyes
- cover test: detects eye mm weakness
involuntary movement of eyeballs
what are the names for CN3, 4, 6?
- CN3: oculomotor
- CN4: trochlear
- CN6: abducens
inward turning lazy eye
outward turning lazy eye
what test do you use to assess this?
nasal (inward) drift when eye is covered
what test do you use to assess this?
temporal (outward) drift
where are the meibomian glands located? what do they do?
inside eyelids. they lubricate the inside of the lids.
what is a hordeolum? what's the common name for it?
localized staph infection of hair follicle at lid margin. aka sty
what is blepharitis? what causes it?
inflammation of eyelids. d/t staph infection or seborrheic dermatitis
inward curving eyelid and lashes
outwardly curved eyelid and lashes, esp in lower lid
define palpebral fissues
space b/w upper and lower lids. the part of the eye you can see.
which nerves might be involved with this condition?
drooping upper lid
CN 3, 5, 7
where are the sebaceous glands located in/around the eyes?
caruncle, located in inner canthus
what do the puncta do? where are they located?
drains tears that flow from the lacrimal glands. located at upper and lower inner canthus
trace the path of tears once they leave the lacrimal gland
flow across eye --> drain into puncta --> drain into lacrimal sac --> thru nasolacrimal duct --> empty info inferior meatus in the nose
name the three concentric coatings of the eyeball from superficial to deep
what is the limbus?
border of sclera and iris
also where bulbar conjunctiva merges with cornea
what part of the eye are you assessing when you evert and inspect the upper lid?
will they damage vision?
yellowish nodules on bulbar conjuntiva at 3 & 9 o'clock d/t thickening secondary to sun, wind, and dust.
do not affect vision.
does it affect vision?
overgrowth on conjunctival tissue
can affect vision if extends over pupil
what's the name for the thin mucous membrane that covers the sclera?
which nerves control blinking
what are their names?
CN5 and 7
- CN5: trigeminal
- CN7: facial
what is CN5? what does it do?
trigeminal. carries afferent sensation to brain
what is the name of CN7? what does it do?
facial nerve. carries efferent messages that stimulate blink reflex
what does SNS stim do to the pupils? what's the fancy name for this?
dilates = mydriasis
what does paraSNS stim do to the pupils? what's the fancy name for this?
constricts = miosis
which nerves control pupil dilation and constriction? which is afferent? efferent?
- CN2 and 3
- efferent: 3
- afferent: 2
what is PERRLA?
documention for "pupils equal, round, react to light, accomodation"
what are cataracts?
cloudy or opaque lenses
which layer of the eye contains the optic disc and macula?
2 names for tool used to examine internal eye
what is the normal range for intraocular pressure?
what intraocular pressure indicates glaucoma?
what's the name for the spot where fibers from the retina converge to form the optic nerve?
which nerve (#) is the optic nerve?
which part of the eye contains rods?
what is the optic chiasm?
location where fibers from both temporal visual fields cross over
where would blockage be happening if a pt presents with bi-temporal hemianopsia?
what is homonomous hemianopsia?
blindness of the same 1/2 of the visual field on both sides
where would you suspect a blockage if a patient presented with homonomous hemianopsia?
why is it super duper important to assess from extraocular mm fx in kids?
poor prognosis is dx'd after age 6, can lead to blindness d/t disuse
define amblyopia. what causes it?
loss of vision or blindness d/t disuse. caused by untreated strabismus
what acuity of vision would you expect from a 4 month old? 2 y/o? (in 20/20 format)
- 4 mos: 20/200
- 2 yrs: 20/40
when does iris color permanently differentiate in kids?
what is the name for lipid deposits at the inner canthus, found in older adults?
what are the 3 primary causes of vision problems in older adults?
- macular degeneration
what is the name for the collection of broken down lipids forming a gray-white circle around the limbus? what causes it?
what is pseudoptosis?
drooping eyelids in older adults d/t loose skin caused by loss of elasticity, fat, and mm atrophy
when is the pupillary light reflex first present in kiddies?
when is the blink reflex first observable in kids?
at what age will a kid begin tearing? when are the lacrimal glands fully developed?
first at 2-4 wks. fully at age 4.
how does the pupil accommodate to looking at distance?
dilate --> think d*istance = d*ilate
what happens to the pupils when you adjust from looking at something far away to something close?
pupils constrict and converge --> c*lose = c*onstrict & c*onverge
inflammation of cornea
what is the eye shaped like with astigmatism? what will vision be like with it?
shaped like a football. blurry vision
what is anisocoria? what % of the population has it normally?
anisocoria = unequal pupil size. non-pathologic in 5% of pop.
what controls lens thickness?
ciliary body. changes shape to accommodate for near and far objects.
what is the red reflex?
red glow that appears to fill the person's pupil when first visualized thru the ophthalmoscope
define nystagmus. when is it normal?
involuntary eye mvmt
normal only during extreme lateral mvmt