N202 Eyes

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N202 Eyes
2010-11-13 13:50:54
N202 eyes

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  1. define diplopia
    double vision
  2. define strabismus
    lazy eye
  3. define scotoma.

    blind spots

    caused by migraines, glaucoma, visual pathway disorders
  4. what kind of vision loss does macular degeneration cause? glaucoma?
    • mac: central
    • glaucoma: periph
  5. define photophobia
    sensitivity to light
  6. what could cause night blindness?
    • optic atrophy (r/t age)
    • glaucoma
    • vit A deficiency
  7. define epiphoria
    excessive tearing / watering
  8. define myopia & hyperopia
    • myopia: near sighted
    • hyper: far sighted
  9. OD
    • OD: right eye
    • OS: left eye (sinister)
    • OU: both eyes

    ** on do not use list of abbrevs.
  10. what is the Snellen chart used for?
    testing central vision acuity
  11. Snellen vision test requirement to drive in CA?
  12. define presbyopia.
    at what age does it occur?
    decreased power of accommodation of the eye with aging --> why ppl need to wear reading glasses

    42-46 y/o
  13. cranial nerves responsible for eye mvmt
    CN 3, 4, 6
  14. which eye mm are innervated by CN4 and CN6? CN3?
    • CN4: superior oblique
    • CN6: lateral rectus
    • CN3: all others
  15. name all mm associated with eye mvmt
    • superior rectus
    • inferior rectus
    • lateral rectus
    • medial rectus
    • superior oblique
    • inferior oblique
  16. which oblique m is responsible of downward mvmt? for upward?
    • down: superior
    • up: inferior
  17. which nerve and m are responsible for eye mvmt horizontal and temporal?
    • lateral rectus
    • CN6
  18. which nerve and m are responsible for eye mvmt up and temporal?
    • superior rectus
    • CN3
  19. which nerve and m are responsible for eye mvmt down and temporal?
    • inferior rectus
    • CN3
  20. which nerve and m are responsible for eye mvmt horizontal and nasal?
    • medial rectus
    • CN3
  21. which nerve and m are responsible for eye mvmt up and nasal
    • inferior oblique
    • CN3
  22. which nerve and m are responsible for eye mvmt down and nasal?
    • superior oblique
    • CN4
  23. 3 tests for extraocular mm fx
    • EOM = extra ocular mvmt: the finger at 6 cardinal positions of gaze
    • corneal light reflex: tests parallel alignment of eyes
    • cover test: detects eye mm weakness
  24. define nystagmus
    involuntary movement of eyeballs
  25. what are the names for CN3, 4, 6?
    • CN3: oculomotor
    • CN4: trochlear
    • CN6: abducens
  26. define esotropia
    inward turning lazy eye
  27. define exotropia
    outward turning lazy eye
  28. define esophoria

    what test do you use to assess this?
    nasal (inward) drift when eye is covered

    cover test
  29. define exophoria

    what test do you use to assess this?
    temporal (outward) drift

    cover test
  30. where are the meibomian glands located? what do they do?
    inside eyelids. they lubricate the inside of the lids.
  31. what is a hordeolum? what's the common name for it?
    localized staph infection of hair follicle at lid margin. aka sty
  32. what is blepharitis? what causes it?
    inflammation of eyelids. d/t staph infection or seborrheic dermatitis
  33. define entropion
    inward curving eyelid and lashes
  34. define ectropian
    outwardly curved eyelid and lashes, esp in lower lid
  35. define palpebral fissues
    space b/w upper and lower lids. the part of the eye you can see.
  36. define ptosis

    which nerves might be involved with this condition?
    drooping upper lid

    CN 3, 5, 7
  37. where are the sebaceous glands located in/around the eyes?
    caruncle, located in inner canthus
  38. what do the puncta do? where are they located?
    drains tears that flow from the lacrimal glands. located at upper and lower inner canthus
  39. trace the path of tears once they leave the lacrimal gland
    flow across eye --> drain into puncta --> drain into lacrimal sac --> thru nasolacrimal duct --> empty info inferior meatus in the nose
  40. define enophthalmos
    sunken eyeballs
  41. define exophthalmos
    bulging eyeballs
  42. name the three concentric coatings of the eyeball from superficial to deep
    • sclera
    • choroid
    • retina
  43. what is the limbus?
    border of sclera and iris

    also where bulbar conjunctiva merges with cornea
  44. what part of the eye are you assessing when you evert and inspect the upper lid?
    palpebral conjunctive
  45. define pinguecula

    will they damage vision?
    yellowish nodules on bulbar conjuntiva at 3 & 9 o'clock d/t thickening secondary to sun, wind, and dust.

    do not affect vision.
  46. define pterygium.

    does it affect vision?
    overgrowth on conjunctival tissue

    can affect vision if extends over pupil
  47. what's the name for the thin mucous membrane that covers the sclera?
    bulbar conjunctiva
  48. which nerves control blinking

    what are their names?
    CN5 and 7

    • CN5: trigeminal
    • CN7: facial
  49. what is CN5? what does it do?
    trigeminal. carries afferent sensation to brain
  50. what is the name of CN7? what does it do?
    facial nerve. carries efferent messages that stimulate blink reflex
  51. what does SNS stim do to the pupils? what's the fancy name for this?
    dilates = mydriasis
  52. what does paraSNS stim do to the pupils? what's the fancy name for this?
    constricts = miosis
  53. which nerves control pupil dilation and constriction? which is afferent? efferent?
    • CN2 and 3
    • efferent: 3
    • afferent: 2
  54. what is PERRLA?
    documention for "pupils equal, round, react to light, accomodation"
  55. what are cataracts?
    cloudy or opaque lenses
  56. which layer of the eye contains the optic disc and macula?
  57. 2 names for tool used to examine internal eye
    ophthalmoscope, fundoscope
  58. what is the normal range for intraocular pressure?
    13-22 mmHg
  59. what intraocular pressure indicates glaucoma?
    >22 mmHg
  60. what's the name for the spot where fibers from the retina converge to form the optic nerve?
    optic disc
  61. which nerve (#) is the optic nerve?
  62. which part of the eye contains rods?
  63. what is the optic chiasm?
    location where fibers from both temporal visual fields cross over
  64. where would blockage be happening if a pt presents with bi-temporal hemianopsia?
    optic chiasm
  65. what is homonomous hemianopsia?
    blindness of the same 1/2 of the visual field on both sides
  66. where would you suspect a blockage if a patient presented with homonomous hemianopsia?
    optic tract
  67. why is it super duper important to assess from extraocular mm fx in kids?
    poor prognosis is dx'd after age 6, can lead to blindness d/t disuse
  68. define amblyopia. what causes it?
    loss of vision or blindness d/t disuse. caused by untreated strabismus
  69. what acuity of vision would you expect from a 4 month old? 2 y/o? (in 20/20 format)
    • 4 mos: 20/200
    • 2 yrs: 20/40
  70. when does iris color permanently differentiate in kids?
    6-9 mos
  71. what is the name for lipid deposits at the inner canthus, found in older adults?
  72. what are the 3 primary causes of vision problems in older adults?
    • cataracts
    • glaucoma
    • macular degeneration
  73. what is the name for the collection of broken down lipids forming a gray-white circle around the limbus? what causes it?
    arcus senilus

  74. what is pseudoptosis?
    drooping eyelids in older adults d/t loose skin caused by loss of elasticity, fat, and mm atrophy
  75. when is the pupillary light reflex first present in kiddies?
    3 wks
  76. when is the blink reflex first observable in kids?
    at birth
  77. at what age will a kid begin tearing? when are the lacrimal glands fully developed?
    first at 2-4 wks. fully at age 4.
  78. how does the pupil accommodate to looking at distance?
    dilate --> think d*istance = d*ilate
  79. what happens to the pupils when you adjust from looking at something far away to something close?
    pupils constrict and converge --> c*lose = c*onstrict & c*onverge
  80. define keratitis
    inflammation of cornea
  81. what is the eye shaped like with astigmatism? what will vision be like with it?
    shaped like a football. blurry vision
  82. what is anisocoria? what % of the population has it normally?
    anisocoria = unequal pupil size. non-pathologic in 5% of pop.
  83. what controls lens thickness?
    ciliary body. changes shape to accommodate for near and far objects.
  84. what is the red reflex?
    red glow that appears to fill the person's pupil when first visualized thru the ophthalmoscope
  85. define nystagmus. when is it normal?
    involuntary eye mvmt

    normal only during extreme lateral mvmt