Card Set Information
Ch. 7-8, and Family Meal Service
What percent of children in the U.S. are not consuming the recommended amount of vegetables?
What percent of children in the U.S. are not consuming the recommended amount of fruits?
A list of foods to be served for meals and snacks.
Eating is a....
sensory (physical), emotional, cognitive, and social experience.
Responsibilites of the adult in the feeding process:
Provide new foods for the children
When the food is provided
Responsibilities of the child in the feeding process:
What to eat
How much to eat
According to the Child and Adult Care Food Program, a healthy snack must
meet the meal pattern requirements for a specific age group.
The primary criterion for a good menu for young children is
To be adequate a menu planned for young children must:
have a variety of shapes, colors, textures, and taste
include foods they like plus new foods
stay within budget
make sure it meets fuding requirements/licensing
adjustments for children with special needs or allergies
Importance of Careful Meal Planning
Many children are in early childhood programs for more than eight hours per day.
Teachers are increasingly being asked to be the nutritional gatekeepers for children and to help children develop positive attitudes toward eating.
78% of children are not consuming the recommended amount of vegetables.
63% of children are not consuming the recommended amount of fruits.
a list of foods that are to be served; it is the basis of any food service.
sensory, emotional, social and learning experience.
What is associated with the young child's feeling of well-being?
Menu planning is made simpler by using a four-phase approach:
: Understand child nutrition and food program requirements.
: Establish broad program nutrition goals.
: Write menus using a step-by-step approach.
: Adapt menus to support special dietary needs or food preferences.
Adequate Menu for Children:
Meet the nutritional needs of children. (PRIMARY CRITERION).
Meet an existing funding or licensing requirements
Be appealing (have taste, texture, and eye appeal).
Make children comfortable by serving familiar food.
Encourage healthy food habits by introducing new foods.
Provide safe food prepared and served in clean surroundings.
Stay within budgetary limits.
Provide alternatives for children with food allergies, eating problems. and special nutritional needs.
Nutrients "at-risk" for Children:
(These should be provided in the menu daily)
A healthy snack must include at least two different components of the following four:
A serving of fluid milk
A serving of a meat or meat alternate
A serving of vegetable or fruits or full-strength vegetable or fruit juice.
A serving of whole grain or enriched bread and/or cereal.
Tips of Snacking
Plan as part of the daily food plan
Serve snacks and meals that satisfy a child's need for extra nutrients and for different types of food (crunch, soft, chewy, smooth, hot, cold, sweet, sour, bland, spicy).
Involve the children in planning and preparation.
Provide snacks that are nutrient- each bite contributes to the child's intake of nutrients
Use foods on hand from all five food groups
Children drink no more than two 6-ounce servings of fruit juice per day
Consider fruit juices fortified with calcium
Avoid sugared products, especially gooey and sticky foods that contribute to tooth decay.
Most should be fruits and vegetables since most children do not consume the recommended amount of these foods
Be a role model- eat the same snack as the children with the children.
Foods on hand from all five food groups:
Meats, fish, poultry, nuts, and dried cooked beans(protein and iron)
Milk and dairy products (calcium, riboflavin, protein, and vitamins A and D)
Vegetables (Vitamins, carbs, and fiber)
Fruits (Vitamins, carbs and fiber)
Breads, cereals, and grains (Carbs, B vitamins, and fiber)
Food and Nutrition Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)
Administered at the state level through the department of education
-School Breakfast Program
-School Lunch Program
-Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP)
-Supplemental Food Program
Administered by state agencies, usually through the department of health
Each state has its own with regard to nutrition and food service
-Administration and record keeping
Identifying the Professional's Role
Understand healthful menu planning
Reinforce healthful eating practices
Use resources and nutritional guidelines provided by funded menu planning systems
Federal government's MyPyramid
Dietary Guidelines for Americans
State licensing guidelines for food preparation and service
Child Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) guidelines
The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children Works Resource System
Head Start Performance Standards for Nutrition
JCAHO Accreditation (hospitals)
The National Association for the Education of Young Children Health Standards 5A and 5B.
Promoting Fruits and Vegetables
Serve fruits and vegetables with appealing flavors, textures, and smells.
Serve foods that are visually appealing.
Offer various forms of fruits and vegetables
Plan menu items into which shredded or pureed vegetables or fruits can be added
Serve foods using different methods of preparation
Select menu itmes that combine various vegetables or fruits
Introduce a new fruit or vegetable frequently and serve with regular foods (it can take 15-20 exposures before new food is accepted by children)
Use classroom cooking activities to promote new fruits and vegetables.
Add dips to encourage trying new fruits and vegetables
Follow the USDA Food and Nutrition Service suggestions
Foods contain all parts of the grain kernel including the bran, endosperm, and germ, even after the grain is milled.
-Rich in essential vitamins, minerals, and fiber
-Contain high levels of antioxidants (look for 100% )
The bran and germ removed in milling process.
-Reduced fiber and nutrient content (examples
: white bread, pasta, and white rice).
Choosing Whole Grain Foods
Wheat (bulgar, cracked wheat, wheat berries, and whole wheat flour)
Oats and oatmeal
Corn including whole cornmeal and popcorn
Choosing Whole Foods
Serve whole grain breads-at least half of all grains consumed by children should be whole grains.
Serve side dishes that are whole grains
Serve fresh fruit
Serve fresh or plain frozen vegetables
Serve turkey burger
Serve homemade soups with added barley or brown rice
Plan whole-grain cereals for breakfast or snacks
Serve dried beans or peas once a week
Avoid Harmful Fats
Switch to skim or 1% milk when children reach age 2
Offer low-fat dairy products
Use more heart-healthy oils
Avoid trans fatty acids found in margarines, shortenings, crackers, cookies, pies, chips, fries
Serve heart-healthy fish (tuna, salmon, sardines)
Sustainable practices are those that meet current needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs.
Use locally grown products
Select environmentally responsible products
Plant School gardens
Managing Foods Sent from Home
Commercially prepared foods are recommended when sharing with the group
Encourage whole fruits
Consider preparation and storage practices
Provide families a list of recommended foods
Symptoms of an Immediate Food Allergy within Minutes or up to 2 hours:
Swelling of the mouth, throat
Red, tearing eyes
Delayed Food ALlergy Reaction
Occur within 2 hours up to about 48 hours
Contact dermatitis is a rash that occurs when an allergen comes in contact with the skin.
Meal Planning for Children with Type 1 Diabetes:
Learn the carbohydrate content of foods
Ensure regular mealtimes
Review foods planned for special events
Plan appropriate foods for meals away from the program
Develop strategies if child refuses to eat
Obtain training and guidance on what foods to feed or medication to administer if the child's blood sugar level goes too low
Make provisions in case the teacher is absent
Meal Planning for Children who are overweight or obese:
Limit the intake of sugar-sweetened beverages
Encourage the intake of sufficient fruits and vegetables
Eat breakfast daily
Provide appropriate portion sizes
Serve low-fat entrees; lean skinless meat, fish, or poulty
Select fresh fruit
Use low-fat condiments
Serve skim or 1% milk to children age two and older
Offer whole foods and whole-grain foods high in fiber content
Serve salad with meals
Concerns for Children with Special Health and Developmental Needs
Requirements for calories to maintain appropriate rates of growth
Oral-motor problems, developmental delay of feeding skills
Increased risk for obesity due to ppor muscle tone or decreased physical activity
Drugs prescribed for special health needs may interfere with nutrient absorption or appetite
Menu Planning For Vegetarian Diets
Select vegetarian protein produces that are fortified with calcium, iron, vitamin D, zinc, and B12
Serve calcium and Vitamin D fortified soy milk (whole soy milk for children under age 2)
Use meat substitutes
Avoid gelatin products made from pork such as marshmallows, gummy candies, and gelatin desserts.
Plan healthful vegetarian snacks
Support Cultural Sensitivity
Plan menus that include culturally diverse food options
Offer culturally relevant classroom cooking activities
Offer opportunities for parents to learn about healthful ethnic cooking
Provide information in various home languages
Read children's books on eating and nutrition that reflect culturally diverse settings
Conduct field trips to culturally diverse food establishments
Importance of Food Safety for Young Children
Immature immune systems
Dangerous and may be fatal
Major public health issue; increasing in occurence
Immature judgment regarding safety of food
Symptoms such as vomiting and diarrhea may lead to dehydration and loss of electrolytes more quickly
Primary Techniques of Prevention
Following good personal health and cleanliness habits
: Most effective technique is proper hand washing to prevent both food borne illnesses and contagious illnesses.
Maintaing a sanitary food service operation and environment of feeding
Sanitation of Food Service Area
Systematic attention including
-Spot cleaning as spills occur
-Thorough daily cleaning
Food-borne Illness Outbreak
Two or more persons become ill after ingesting the same food. Laboratory analysis must confirm that food is the source of the illness.
-76 million people per year
- 325,000 hospitalizations
Sickness that results from the consumption of contaminated foods
Incidence is highest in children less than 4 years of age, because
-children's immune systems are not fully developed
-Children's bodies produce fewer stomach acids to protect against contaminated foods
Germs or microorganims that grow on food and cause serious illness when consumed
Bacteria, viruses, and parasites
Germs that contaminate food
Mold toxins and naturally occurring poisions found in plants
How Microorganims Create Illness
Infection- occurs via food exposure
-Salmonella-egg whites in an uncooked frosting
Intoxication- caused by microorganims that grow on the food and release toxins into it
Toxin-Mediated Infection-includes features of both infection and intoxication
Contaminates in foods the pose a heatlh risk when consumed
Hazards during the growing and harvesting of foods
-Pesticides and fertilizers
Hazards during the processing of foods
-Lubricants and cleansing detergents and sanitizers
Hazards during the storage of foods
-Cleaning agents stored near foods
Items that get into foods that may cause injury or illness.
-Glass, rocks, metal shavings
-Hair or fingernails
-Children's program items; breads, glitter, beans, rice
Benefits of Establishing a Relationship with County Healthy Agencies
Assist in food safety policies and operating procedures
A resource for food safety and foodborned illness questions
Conduct inspections that support healthy environments
Investigate foodborne illness outbreaks and assist programs in developing steps to control the spread of infection
Help programs identify when a foodborne outbreak needs to be reported to state or federal health agencies.
Hazard and Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP)
Tracks food through many phases of production, preparation, and service and evaluates potential for exposure to contamination.
Hazard and Analysis Critical Control Point System
: Hazard Analysis
: Identify the Critical Control Points
: Establish Critical Limits
: Establish a Monitoring System
: Establish a Corrective Action Plan
: Establish Procedures for Verification
: Maintain a System of Record Keeping
Risk Factors for Foodborned Outbreaks:
Improper holding times and temperatures of foods
Poor personal hygiene
Cross-contamination (the transfer of harmful germs from one food to another or from an infected person to food)
Minimizing Contamination Risks
Foods should be USDA-inspected of FDA-approved
Avoid home-canned or home prepared
Use proper receiving and food storage
Prevent contamination by maintaing personal hygiene, preventing cross-contamination, and avoiding the temperature danger zone.
Food Safety Guidelines for Feeding Infants
Discard breast milk or formulas that has been left out for two hours or more
Check formua and baby food "use by" dates
Discard any jar of baby food if the safety button on the lid has popped
Do not feed baby directly from jar
Make sure any homemade baby food is thoroughly cooked
Do not feed babies honey until age 1 and older due to the risk of botulism
Food Safety Guidelines for Toddlers and Preschoolers
Avoid foods that are round or large enough to obstruct an airway
Foods should be cute into age-appropriate peices of 1/2 inch or less
Safety Management for Classroom Cooking Activities
Avoid handling raw foods that contain infectious microorganisms (use pasteurized egg subsitute in place of eggs)
when preparing foods that will not be cooked, children should only eat the food that was prepared for them
Protect children with allergies or food intolerances from activities that lead to exposure of allergic foods.
Teaching Food Saftey Tips
Sneezing into your elbow
Handling utensils by their handles when setting the table
Only putting your own spoon and fork in your mouth
Eating your own food and drink
Putting milk in the refrigerator
Washing tables before and after eating
Nurturing Young Children in Healthy Eating Habits: The Importance of:
Family Meals at Home
Family Style Meal Service in Early Childhood Settings
Social Value of Family Meals
Sharing of food and mealtime eating is common to every human society
Important symbols of
Connections and rituals
: talking, listening, manners
Family unity, solidarity, and identity
Family values, attitudes, cultrual and ethnic heritage--"food memories"
Communication of love and caring
Family Meal Times: What Does the Research Say?
A positive effect upon the character and social development of the children
: less apt to engage in risky behavior such as taking drugs, drinking, smoking, engagin in sex
Improves family communication skills
Lower risk of developing eating disorders
Improved nutritional intake of the entire family
More consumption of fruits and vegetables
Fewer soft drinks and snacks
More calcium rich foods
More protein, iron, fiber, and vitamins
Development of family values and traditions
Develops the culinary skills of family members
Development of child's security and confidence
Perfrom better in school
Tend to have lower BMI measures
Less likely to be overweight or obese
Better brain development
Lower depression rates in teens
Better relationship development
Are Families Eating Together?
Families eating meals together have declined significantly over the past 30 years.
Parents believe that eating meals together is very important
Adolescents also state that it is one of the activites that they most desire
Due to complexity of family life, less than 50% of families eat as a family regularly
What is the role of early childhood professionals?
Child care providers have assumed a role that was typically held by parents in nurturing youn children. Viewed as
A supplement and extension, not a replacemnt, of good parenting
A team effort with good parental involvement
Good communication between staff and parents
This means creating a "child-friendly" environment that
Provides nurtitious foods, well-prepared and attractive
Provides opportuinties for learning
Provides for an enjoyable experience
Characteristics of "Child-Friendly" Meal Service:
Provides a happy, relaxed experience
Helps children develop positive food and eating attitudes
Provides positive role models
Builds children's confidence
Builds communication skills with children and parents
Enhances development of whole child-- academically, socially, emotionally, and physically
Family Style Meal service
A type of meal service that allows children to serve themselves at the table from common dishes of food with the assistance of an adult
Family Style Meal Service Encourages Adults to:
Set a personal example
Provide educational activities centered around foods
Allow children to identify new foods, new tastes, and new menus
Help develop a positive attiutde toward nutritious foods and develop good eating habits
Learn to share in group eating situations and manners
Family Style Meal Service is....
Extremely important for early childhood programs from three viewpoints
Positive food habits, good nutrition, and long-term health (lifetime skills)
Developmentally appropriate curriculum and environment for learning
Compliance with quality/accrediation standards
Positive Aspects of Family-Style Meal Service:
Provides abudant opportunities to promote:
Safe, clean, and comfortable
Child size plates, utensils, glasses, and cups
Furniture of right size and shape for children's age and development
Serve new food with familiar food
Serve foods from different cultures
Variety of shapes, colors, textures, flavors
Do not serve any food that represent a choking hazard
Safely and correctly prepared
Adult's Responsibility in Feeding Children:
Setting regular times for meals and snacks
Planning and preparing healthy meals and snacks
Assuring that the children come to the table at meal and snack time
Creating a pleasant mealtime environment
Children's Repsonsibility in Feeding Themselves:
Deciding which of the healthy foods offered they want to eat
Deciding how much food they want to eat
Pleasant, relaxed and peaceful
Children involved-table setting, food preparation, self-service, cleanup
Encourage children to eat food but do not force
Food should not be used as reward or punishment
Allow children to feed themselves
Talk with children during eating; allow children to talk with each other
Model eating behavior, conversation, and good manners
Balancing learning new skills with enjoying eating
Give children time to eat
Talk with children, allow for self-directed conversation (language development and social skills development)
Simple rules of etiquette such as "please," "thank you," and "no thank you."
Tips for Success
Have a transition activity before a meal or snack
Children should wash their hands; adults should model this behavior
Use carefully planned meals and snacks-"every day foods" and "sometimes food"
Sit with the children, model healthy eating habits, trying new foods with positive attitude, allowing the child to guide conversation
Send copies of menus home to parents
Be aware of "teachable" moments
Ideas for Teaching...
Introduce and discuss new colors, tastes, textures, shapes
Have children measure ingredients with real kitchen measuring cups and spoons
Teach the origin of foods
Plan meals around holidays or community events
Provide diverse cultural experiences
Have a window garden with herbs
: talk about the food, how it is grown, good eating habits, proper table manners
Show children how to serve the food, taking the proper ammounts, what to do if a spill occurs.
Food Safety: Myth 1
If it tastes okay, it's safe to eat
Food Safety: Fact 1
Don't count on your smell, taste, or sight to tell you if a food is safe to eat.
Estimates of Foodborne Illnesses in the U.S. Each Year
76 million people become ill
5,000 people die
Even if tasting would tell.. Why risk getting sick?
A "tiny taste" may not protect you.
As few as 10 bacteria could cause some foodborne illnesses
Food Safety: Myth 2
If you get sick from eating a food, it was from the last food you ate
Food Safety: Fact 2
It can take 1/2 hour to 6 weeks to become sick from unsafe foods
You usually feel OK immediately after eating and become sick later
Food Safety: Myth 3
The worst that could happen to you with a foodborne illness is an upset stomach
Food Safety: Fact 3
Dehydration (sometimes severe)
Less common, but possibly severe conditions
Food Safety: Myth 4
If I've never been sick from the food I prepare, I don't need to worry about feeding it to others
Food Safety: Fact 4
Some people have a greater risk for foodborne illnessess.
A food you can safely eat might make others sick
People with a Higher Risk for Foodborne Illness:
Young children and older adults
People with weakened immune systems and individuals with certain chronice diseases
Food Safety: Myth 5
People never used to get sick from their food
Food Safety: Fact 5
Many incidents of foodborne illness went undetected in the past
Symptoms of nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea were often, and still are blamed on the "flu."
More Common in Foodborne Illness:
More Common in Flu:
Runny or Stuffy Nose
More reasons for foodborne illnesses than in the past...
bacteria have become more potent over the years.
Our food now travels farther with more chances for contamination
Food Safety: Myth 6
As long as I left the lid on a food that has sat out too long, it is safe to eat
Food Safety: Fact 6
Though food may be safe after cooking, it may not be safe later.
Just one bacteria in the food can double in 20 minutes!
How many bacteria will grow from one bacteria left at room temperature for 7 hours?
Perishable foods should be refrigerated at a temperature of 40 F or lower within how many hours?
On a hot day (90 F or higher), food should not sit out for more than how many hours?
Food Safety: Myth 7
If you let a food set out for more than two hours, you can make it safe by heating it really hot!
Food Safety: Fact 7
Some bacteria, such as staphylococcus (staph), produce toxins that are not destroyed by high cooking temperatures
Staphylococcus comes from the Greek word meaning....
"A bunch of grapes"
Food Safety: Myth 8
If a hamburger is brown in the middle, it is cooked to a safe internal temperature
Food Saftey: Fact 8
1 out of 4 hamburgers turns brown before it has been cooked to a safe internal temperature
Research shows some ground beef patties look done at internal temperatures as low as 135 F, but a temperature of 160 F is needed to destory _____________?
What is the only way to know that food has been cooked to a safe internal temperature?
Use a food thermometer
How to Use a Food Thermometer
Wash thermometer with hot soapy water before and after use
Use before the food is expected to be "done"
Place in the thickest part of the food, not touching bone, fat, or gristle
Compare reading to USDA recommended safe minimum internal temperatures
Food Thermometers and Thin Foods
On an "instant-read" dial thermometer, the probe must be inserted in the side of the food so the entire sensing area (usually 2-3 inches) is positioned through the center of the food.
When possible, use a digital thermometer to measure the temperature of a thin food. The sensng area is only 1/2 to 1 inch long and easier to place in the center of the food.
USDA Recommended Safe Minimum Internal Temperatures:
Beef, veal, lamb
: Steaks and Roasts -145F
: 145 F
Pork 160 F
Beef, veal, lamb
: ground- 160 F
: 160 F
Turkey, Chicken and Ducks
: Whole, pieces, and ground- 165 F
Food Safety: Myth 9
Meat and poultry should be washed before cooking
Food Safety: Fact 9
Washing meat and poultry is NOT necessary or recommended.
Washing increases the danger of cross-contamination, spreading bacteria present on the surface of meat and poultry to:
Food Safety: Myth 10
We should be scared of eating almost anything
Food Safety: Fact 10
"... the American food supply continues to be among the safest in the world."
4 Steps to Follow For Proper Food Handling:
Wash hands and surfaces often.
Cook to proper temperatures