Neuro exam 3
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Describe Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (LAS)?
It attacks the nerve cells controlling voluntary muscle. It starts in one part of the body then spreads to the rest of the body eventually causing respitory arrest from the neurons hardening. Its rapidly progressing but does not affect intellect. Pateint dies within 2-5 years.
What is another name for ALS?
Lou Gehrig's disease
What does ALS effect?
The motor neurons
What does Acoustic Neuroma effect?
The cranial nerves
What is the major issue with Acoustic Neuroma?
Its a benign neoplasm compression of cranial nerves V, VII, and VIII.
What does Acoustic Neuroma Cause?
- Unilateral hearing loss
- balance disturbance
- fullness in the ear
- trigeminal neuralgia.
What is Dystonia?
Alteration in muscle tone
What is Myoclonus?
Involuntary, random muscle contractions
Its damage to the extrapramital system that forces certain parts of the body into abnormal, sometimes painful movements or postures.
How do we correct medication induced Dystonia?
With and anticolinergic (Benadryl).
Refers to a sudden, involuntary jerking of a muscle or group of muscles.
What are some causes of Myoclonus?
- Head or spinal cord injury
- Stroke, brain tumors
- Chemical or drug poisoning
- Prolinged O2 deprivation
What is Peripheral Neuropathy?
- A disease or disorder that affects the peripheral nervous system.
- Spinal nerve root
- Cranial nerves
- Peripheral nerves
Describe Spina Bifida?
Its a congenital defect, caused by incomplete development of brain, spinal cord and/or protective coverings, there are 4 types.
What are the 4 types of Spina Bifida?
- Occult (most common)
- Most common form
- Best of the 4 types
- Spinal cord and surrounding structures reamain inside the baby
- Backbone doesnt form normally
What is the one outward sign of Occult?
Tuff of hair on the lower lumbar area.
- Moderate form
- Fluid filled sac outside the body with no cord or nerves in it.
- Severe form
- Outside the body sac with cord and nerves inside
What are some SxS of Myelomeningocele?
- Loss of sensation below the defect
- Problems with bowel and bladder
- Often seen with Hydrocephalus
Protrusion through the skull
What is Cerebral Palsy?
A group of disorders that involve:
- Motor impariment
- Prenatal period damage is most common
What are the classifications of CP?
- Spastic paralysis
Where in the brain does spastic paralysis effect and what are some SxS?
- Motor Cortex
- The most common form of CP
- Scissor walk
- Muscle tightness
Where in the brain does Dyskinetic CP effect and what are some SxS?
- Basil Ganglia
- Abnormal movements
- Athetoid (slow involuntary muscle movement)
- Choreiform (rapid jerky movement)
Where in the brain does Ataxic CP effect and what are SxS?
- The least common
- Balance issues
What are some other problems that CP causes?
- Sleered speech
- Enlarged ventricles
- tongue thrusting
Describe Bell's Palsy?
- Most Common
- Temporary facial paralysis
- Inflammation of cranial nerve VII
What are the 4 Cranial nerve problems?
- Bell's Palsy
- Trigeminal Neuralgia
- Glossopharyngeal Neuralgia
- Acoustic Neuroma
What are SxS of Bell's Palsy?
- Usually sudden onset
- Mild weakness to total paralysis
- Facial drooping
- Ptosis (droopy eyelid)
- No pain
What are some ways we can test for Bell's Palsy?
- The cannot wrinkle their eyebrows
- They cannot close their eyes
How long can Bell's Palsy last and what is it treated with?
Can last for weeks to 6 months and is treated with antivirals.
Pain or irritation caused by damaged cranial nerve.
Describe Trigeminal Neuralgia?
- Sensation or shooting pain to Cranial nerve V (Trigeminal nerve)
- Can effect nerves on left and right
- Goes away in a short period of time
- Divides into three branches (V1, V2, V3)
- Controls sensation in the face.
What is Glossopharyngeal Neuralgia?
- Compression of cranial nerve IX
- Can be life threatning by putting pressure on brainstem
- Can cause an eating problem
- Last few seconds to minutes
SxS of Glossopharyngeal Neuralgia?
- Severe Pain of the tongue
Tumor on the nerve cell
What is Parkinson's?
- Progressive neurologic disease
- Affects motor control (Basil Ganglia)
- Abnormally low concentration of Dopamine as compared to Acetylcholine
Describe the Pathophysiology of Parkinson's.
There is a low concentration of dopamine in comparison to Acetylcholine and since Dopamine is inhibitory there is overstimulation to the Basil Ganglia.
Name some characteristics of Parkinson's
- Tremors (usually first symptom often in hands or arms, can occur in legs, feet or jaw)
- Shake at rest
- Bradykinesia (slow movement)
- Micrographia (handwriting that gets progressively smaller)
- Problems Swallowing and drooling in later years
What is the major type of Muscular Dystrophy (MD) and who are mostly effected?
Duchenne and males
- Motor neuron disease-genetic
- progressive weakness
- degeneration of skeletal muscles
- Males get it Females carry it and pass it on
- Boys usually cannot walk by age 12
Describe Multiple Sclerosis?
- Autoimmune disease that affects the central nervous system
- Destruction of the CNS myelin
- Most common acquired disease of the nervous system in young adults
- Intellect is not affected
What is Guillain-Barre' Syndrome (GBS)?
- Inflammatory disorder of the peripheral nerves
- Cause is unknown but there is damage to the myelin sheaths
What are SxS of Guillain-Barre' Syndrome?
- Progressive muscle weakness
- Can affect the ANS (Swallowing and respiration)
What is Myasthenia Gravis (MG)?
- Chronic autoimmune disorder with progressive skeletal muscle weakness
- Antibodies destroy ACh receptor sites at neuromuscular junctions and that prevents nerve impulses from reaching the muscle.
- Weakness and rapid fatigue in affected muscles
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