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the medical specialty that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases affecting the aged.
the nursing care and the service provided to older adults. coined by Gunter and Estes in 1979.
Age is a
complex process that can be described chronologically, physiologically, and functionally.
Chronologic age, the number of years a person has lived is
most often used when we speak of aging because it is the easiest to identify and measure.
the single most important factor that influences how poorly or how well a person will age.
the fear of aging and the refusal to accept older adults into the mainstream of society.
the disliking of aging and older people unattractive, unintelligent, and unproductive.
the young to separate themselves physically and emotionally from the old and to view older adults as somehow less human value.
Research by the National Institute on Aging reports that
- 1. older pts receive less info than do younger pts with regards to resources, health management, and illness management.
- 2. less info is provided to older adults on lifestyle changes such as weight reduction and smoking cessation
- 3. limited rehab is available for older adults with chronic disease, despite studies demonstrate that individuals older than 85 do benefit
- 4. only 47% of physicians feel that older adults should receive the same evaluation and treatment for acute illness as their younger counterparts.
the statistical study of human populations. Concerned with population's size, distribution, and vital statistics.
Age Cohort is
a term used by demographers to describe a group of people born within a specified time period.
AARP (american association of retired persons)
- 1. consists of members who are 50 yrs of age and spouses regardless of age
- 2. currently has 30 million members
- 3. could have 76 million members when baby boomers reach 50
- 4. uses volunteers and lobbyists to advance political/economic interests
- 5. provides variety of membership benefits, insurance prog. and discounts
NCSC (National Council of Senior Citizens)
has 4.5 million members and focuses on political and legistlative issues.
NASC (national alliance for senior citizens)
has 2 million members and focuses on a variety of issues of concern to older adults
OWL (older women's league)
has 20,000 members and focuses on needs of aging women.
has 75,000 members and cosists of local groups and national organization. attempts to increase public awareness of needs for older adults means of demonstration, door-to-door canvassing, other attention getting methods.
Independent or assisted living centers are
private apartments that are either rented or purchased. additional charges are meals in restaurant style dining rooms and receive laundry and housekeeping services.
Life-lease or life contract facilities are
monthly rental and service fees, older persons or couples are guaranteed a residence for life. Meets needs for independence, socialization, and services.
Government subsidized housing is
meeting certain financial standards and limits. simple apt without any special services or limited services such as nursing clinics and special transportation.
Group housing plans is
when two or more unrelated people share a household in which they have private bedrooms but share the common recreational and leisure areas, as well as the tasks involved in home maintenance.
Nursing homes or extended care facilities are
for extensive assistance. provide room and board, personal care, and medical and nursing services.
3 levels of facility care
- 1. Basic care- level of care and supervision necessary to maintain residents safety and well being
- 2. Skilled care- provides skill care nursing on a regular basis
- 3. Subacute care- provide comprehensive inpatient care in acute illness, injury, or exacerbation of a disease process.
a government progam that provides health care funding for older adults and those with disabilities.
Medicare Part A
covers inpatient hospital care, extended care in a skilled nursing facility following hospitalization after the pt pays an itial deductible and any copay expenses.
Diagnosis related group is
a system in an attempt to contain hospital costs. A hospital is paid a set amount based on the the patient's admitting diadnosis. If discharged earlier, hospital may keep excess money.
Medicare Part B is
optional, covers 80% of "customary and usual" rates charged by physicians after deductibles are met.
Medicare Part C was
made available to individuals who are eligible for Part and enrolled in Part B. Includes "Advantage" or "Choice" plans, which allow beneficiaries to receive Medicare benefits through private insurance companies that are able to demonstrate cost savings.
Medicare Part D, prescription drug coverage,
went into effect during 2006. It is a voluntary plan available to anyone enrolled in Part A or B of medicare.
Supplemental Medicaid (Title 19) is
assistance may be available for those older adults who meet certain financial need requirements. Many of those who have assets dont qualify, they are left with medicare gap that they must pay.
Advance directives is
all adults who are 18 years of age or older and of sound mind have the right to make decisions regarding the amt of health care they desire.
Areas typically addressed in advance directives include
- 1. DNR
- 2. directives related to mechanical ventilation
- 3. directives related to artificial nutrition and hydration
Two forms of types of directives
- 1. Durable power of attorney- transfers authority to make health care decisions to another person
- 2. Living will informs the physician that the individual wishes to die naturally if he or she develops and illness or receives an injury that cannot be cured.
defined as failure to provide for the self because of a lack of ability or lack of awareness.
Indicators of self-neglect include the following:
- 1. inability to maintain ADL's such as personal care, shopping, meal preps
- 2. inability to obtain adequate food and fluid as indicated by malnutrition
- 3. Poor hygiene practices as indicated by body odor, sores, rashes
- 4. Changes in mental function such as confusion, inappropriate responses.
a passive form of abuse in which caregivers fail to provide for the needs of the older person under their care.
includes behaviors such as isolation, ignoring, or depersonalizing older adults.
Financial abuse is
the resources of an older person are stolen or misused by a person whom the older adult trusts
occurs when dependent older persons are deserted by the person or persons responsible for their custody or care
Responses to abuse is
the fear of being treated even worse or fear of being institutionalized or abandoned may prevent the victim from seeking help.
allows the caregiver to have time away from the constant demands of caregiving thereby decreasing caregiver stress and the risk for abuse