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2010-11-07 19:43:06

Nerves, Brain, Special Senses.
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  1. Ganglion
    knot-like swelling in a nerve where the cell bodies of neurons are concentrated. Only in peripheral nervous system
  2. Afferent Nerve
    sensory nerve. carries info TO THE CNS
  3. Efferent Nerve
    motor nerve. carries info FROM THE CNS.
  4. CNS consist of:
    • Brain
    • Spinal Cord
  5. PNS consist of:
    • Somatic
    • Autonomic
  6. Somatic Nerves consist of:
    Voluntary Muscles --

    • cranial nerves
    • spinal nerves
  7. Autonomic Nerves consist of
    • Sympathetic (SANS)
    • Parasympathetic (PANS)
  8. SANS:
    • Fight or Flight
    • Voluntary
  9. PANS:
    • Feed or Breed
    • Involuntary
  10. Sensory Neuron:
    TO CNS
  11. Interneurons
    • Entirely within CNS
    • Integrate info $ make decision on how to respond
  12. Motor Neuron:
  13. Oligodendrocytes:
    Type of Neuroglia that form Myelin Sheath in CNS
  14. Ependymal Cells
    Type of Neuroglia that produces Cerebrospinal Fluid in CNS
  15. Microglia
    Type of Neuroglia that eats dead tissue, etc in CNS
  16. Astrocytes
    Type if Neuroglia that is star shaped and helps form the Blood Brain Barrier in the CNS
  17. Schwann Cells
    Type of Neuroglia that form Myelin Sheath in PNS
  18. Satellite Cells
    Type of Neuroglia that surround neurosomas in ganglia of PNS
  19. Local Potential
    • Stimulus activates receptor on dendrite of neuron
    • Opens sodium Gates. NA+ rushes into cell
    • Makes internal negative charge closer to zero (depolarication
    • Incoming NA+ diffuses for short distances to produce a current toward "trigger zone" of neuron
    • Continues until trigger zone reaches threshold of -55
  20. Depolarization
    After local potential reaches threshold. less negative, closer to zero, eventually becomes positive.
  21. Repolarization
    After depolarization. Back to negative.
  22. Resting Membrane Potential
    before local potential. around -70.
  23. Hyperpolarization
    Repolarization decreases to more negative than begin. Sodium-Potassium Pump brings back to resting potential
  24. Order of events during Nerve Impuse Initiation
    • Resting Membrane Potential
    • Local Potential
    • Depolarization
    • Action Potential- Repolarization
    • Hyperpolarization
  25. Unmyelinated Nerve Signal Conduction
    can't "back-track" due to refractory period
  26. Myelinated Nerve Signal Conduction
    • Voltage-Regulated ion channels only exist in the Nodes of Ranvier.
    • "Saltatory Conduction" -- less energy needed and faster
  27. Synapse
    junction between the end of a neuron and another cell
  28. Neural Synapse
    space between 2 neurons
  29. Neuromuscular Synapse
    space between neuron and muscle
  30. Neurotransmitters
    • chemicals released from presynaptic membrane to neurons to communicate across synapse
    • can be excitatory in inhibitory
  31. Excitatory Postsynaptic Potential
    • EPSP
    • Voltage change in the postsynaptic membrane toward threshold
  32. Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potential
    • IPSP
    • Voltage change in the postsynaptic membrane making it harder to reach threshold
  33. Integration
    EPSP & IPSP by each neuron helps it "decide" how to respond
  34. Summation
    adding up postsynaptic potiential and responding to their net effect
  35. Temporal Summation
    1 synapse generates several EPSP in a small amount of time
  36. Spatial Summation
    EPSPs from several different synapses add up to threshold
  37. Reflex Arc
    • Stimulate receptor
    • afferent takes into spinal
    • synapse w/interneuron
    • motor info out efferent neuron
    • goes to muscle and contracts
  38. 3 Portions of the Brain
    • Cerebrum
    • Cerebellum
    • Brainstem
  39. Gyri
    folds of cerebrum
  40. Sulci
    grooves of cerebrum
  41. Frontal Lobe
    Voluntary MOTOR
  42. Central Sulcus
    Divides Frontal Lobe and Parietal Lobe
  43. Parietal Lobe
    Recieves and Interprets general senses
  44. Occipital Lobe
    visual center
  45. Temporal Lobe
    hearing, smell, learning, memory, visual recognition
  46. Gray matter of cerebrum found in...
    • Cerebral Cortex
    • Basal Nuclei
  47. Motor Association Area of Cerebrum
    Where we PLAN or make the intention to move
  48. Primary Motor Area of Cerebrum
    • Receives info from motor association area
    • Neurons send signals to breainstem and SC to cause muscle contractions
  49. Thalamus
    selects which signals to transmit
  50. Primary somesthetic cortex
    perceives stimulation/ creates awareness
  51. Somesthetic Association Area
    Makes cognitive sense of the stimulation
  52. Cerebellum
    Responsible for MOTOR COORDINATION, time awareness, spatial recognition
  53. Brainstem consist of...
    • midbrain
    • pons
    • medulla
  54. Hypothalamus
    Produces hormones that control the pituitary gland
  55. Optic Chiasm
    optic nerve from each eye cross
  56. Retucular Formation
    • need to survive
    • Modulate activity of cerebral cortex
    • HR&BP, Sleep/consciousness,habituation
  57. Layers of meninges starting from outermost...
    • Dura Mater
    • Arachnoid Mater
    • Pia Mater
  58. Dura Mater
    outermost layer of meninges
  59. Arachnoid Mater
    middle layer of meninges
  60. Pia Mater
    innermost layer of meninges
  61. Choroid Plexus
    mass of blood capillaries on floor of each ventricle
  62. Ependymal Cells
    produce CSF in ventricles of brain
  63. Cerebrospinal Fluid found in...
    • ventricles and canals of the CNS
    • subarachnoid space
  64. Purpose of cerebrospinal fluid
    • Buoyancy
    • Protection
    • Chemical Stability
  65. Why does brain need so much blood?
    • Neurons have high demand for ATP
    • Need O2 and Glucose to produce ATP
  66. Blood-Brain Barrier
    • selective in keeping harmful substances out
    • endothelial cells are tightle joined by astrocytes
  67. Olfactory Nerve
    • CN 1
    • Sensory

  68. Optic Nerve
    • CN 2
    • Sensory

  69. Oculomotor Nerve
    • CN 3
    • Motor

    pupil constriction
  70. Trochlear Nerve
    • CN 4
    • Motor

    eye movement
  71. Trigeminal Nerve
    • CN 5
    • Motor and Sensory

  72. Abducens Nerve
    • CN 6
    • Motor

    eye movement
  73. Facial Nerve
    • CN 7
    • Motor and Sensory

    taste, facial expressions
  74. Acoustic Nerve
    • CN 8
    • Sensory

  75. Glossopharyngeal Nerve
    • CN 9
    • Motor and Sensory

    • sensory of tongue
    • motor: swallowing, gagging
  76. Vagus Nerve
    • CN 10
    • Motor and Sensory

    hunger, helps PANS
  77. Accessory Nerve
    • CN 11
    • Motor

    head, neck, and shoulder movement
  78. Hypoglossal Nerve
    • CN 12
    • Motor

    tongue movement
  79. Stroke
    Lack of blood flow to part(s) of the brain
  80. Hydrocephalus
    Abnormal accumulation of CSF in the ventricles of brain
  81. Cerebral Palsy
    Damaged motor areas of the brain resulting in muscular incoordination
  82. Epilepsy
    • seizures
    • Sudden, massive discharge of neurons
  83. Alzheimer's Disease
    • Amyloid protein deposits in the brain
    • Also have low ACh and nerve growth factor
    • Usually middle aged onset
  84. Parkinson's Disease
    • Progressive loss of motor function
    • degeneration of dopamine (inhibitory NT)
  85. Meningitis
    • inflammation of the meninges
    • Brain swells, ventricles enlarge, brainstem can hemorrhage