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The shoulder is more dependent on muscular support than ligamentous support. True or false
_____: only bone connection of the scapula to the axial skeleton.
Most common site of humeral fracture:_____.
List three parts of the sternum:
____ _____ _____: In a neutral gh postion, the LOP of the middle deltoid is directed mostly superiorly, so that it produces superior translation of the humeral head on the glenoid fossa; supraspinatus has a mechanical advantage by it's larger moment arm, so it produces abduction.
Anatomical Force Couple
Order in strongest to weakest: flexors, extensors, adductors, abductors, medial R, lateral R
extensors, adductors, flexors, abductors, medial R, lateral R
Optimal muscle length for producing maximum strenght is close to the ____ ____ ____ of the muscle.
structural resting length
During shoulder elevation, the scapula rotates (upward or downward) as the GH joint flexes or abducts.
Ratio of GH to scapulothoracic joint movement is:
In terms of Scapulohumeral Rhythm, the GH joint contribures ___ degrees of movement while the scapulothoracic joint contributes ___ degrees.
When does the scapulothoracic joint begin to contribute to motion:
___ d of abduction
___ d of flexion
AC joint elevates approx ___ d during elevation.
SC joint elevates approx ___ d during elevation
____ ligament: as scapula is pulled away from clavicle, this ligamet is pulled tight causing the clavicle to be pulled in during upward rotation.
SC joint has _ degrees of freedom:
- elevation/depression: Frontal a/p
- protraction/ retraction: transverse s/i
- upward and downward rotation: sagittal m/l
_______ ligament: crosses no joint, forms foof over glenohumeral joint. protects underlying bursa and supraspinatus tendon.
AC joint has _ degrees of freedom.
3 but less than 10 degrees around any axis
____ joint: considered functional joint because there is no true body articulations.
Scapulothoracic Joint (also has 3 degrees of freedom)
____ tilt: inferior angle of scapula moves away from thorax.
___ tilt: medial border of scapula moves away from thorax.
____: ring of fibrous tissue and fibrocartillag surrounding the edge of the glenoid fossa.
Describe closed pack position of GH joint:
Describe Open pack postion:
Describe end feel:
- 90 degrees shoulder abduction + 90 degrees of external rotation
- 30 degrees of scaption
- firm due to legamentous and passive muscle tightening
How many carpal bones are there in the hand?
Describe the carpals in the proximal row?
Describe the carpals in the distal row?
- scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, pisiform
- trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, hamate
Which carpal articulates with the thumb?
The distal radius articulates with ___& ___ carpal bones.
The distal ulna is separated by the _____.
- scaphoid and lunate
- triangular fibrocartilage complex TFCC
Most common bone of carpal fracture?
Close packed positon of the radiocarpal joint is?
All wrist motions are the result of the combined actions of the radiocarpal and midcarpal joints? true or false
CMC joint of the thumb is the articulation between ___ and ____./
1st metacarpal and the trapezium
Primary function of the CMC joints it to contribute to ___ of the palm?
____ ____: fibrocartillaginous band that crosses the palmer side of the MCP joint capsule and proximal phalanx of digits 2-5.
_____ _____: anchors skin to stabilize skin of palm for grasping; protects muscles,nerves, and blood vessel; creates tunnels to stabilize hand structures.
_____ _____: located where joint motion or tension on the tendons causes the tendons to move away from the joint. Prevents bowstringing.
______: puts muscles at a mechanical advantage by increasing the moment arm but requires more shortening of muscles causing active insufficiency.
Negatives of Bowstringing: 3 things
- more susceptible to injury
- interferes with contact between hand and object
- changes mechanics of muscle
Forms roof over carpal tunnel. ___ ____ ___.
Transverse Carpal Ligament
As fingers flex, wrist ____.
- Promotes Synergy like a boss
_____ _____: broad ligamentous sheet between the radius and the ulna. Fibers run distally and medially from the radius to the ulna. Provides stability for both proximal and distal radioulnar joints. Binds radius and ulna together.
______ _______: forms ring around head of the radius holding the radius to the ulna while allowing rotation to occur with pronation and suppination.
Closed pack position of humeroulnar joint?
Lateral collateral ligament resists ____.
Medial collateral ligament resists ____.